By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on February 1, 2019
This article must be considered together with the first part Tar and also TAR in Sumerian, Akkadian, Hatti, Hittite, Greek, Latin, Celtic, and Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish and the etymology of the words nektar and master.
The word "dark" can be traced back to Sumer via both Iran-Eurasian steppes and the Mediterranean !The word "dark" is listed as of uncertain origins in Etymonline. In Wiktionary, the article refers to Proto-Germanic *derkaz (“dark”) and Proto-Indo-European *dʰerg- (“dim, dull”) and Proto-Indo-European *dʰer- (“dull, dirty”) none of which are attested in written sources. They are reconstructed sounds.
Let's look at written sources first before checking "Proto-" hypothetical reconstructions.
Wiktionary entry offers the translation of the word "dark" in some world languages. There are many words that have the "der"/"dar"/"tar" sound. We find it in languages in and around Iran and India. The connection is strong in languages in Tajikistan, Iran, India and Bangladesh such as Assamese, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi and Yaghnobi. I should add that Italian word "tramonte" is also interesting.
Among them, Persian and Tajik words stand out in addition to Scottish Gaelic and Irish. Here the match is beyond "tar/dar" it is "dar/Tar" plus "uk"= Taruk/Daruk:
Persian: تاریک (fa) (târik), تار (fa) (târ), تیره (fa) (tīre)
Tajik: торик (tg) (torik)
Scottish Gaelic: dorcha
These words are basically minute variations of Tar+uk= Taruk. (t>d)
Both of these words are of Sumerian Turkish origin tar/dar and uğ/uk (people, kind, lineage). Also see and Avestan "atar" for fire, Latin "ater" for black
Both proto-Indo-European constructions are in line with the above existing words!
There is more, Persian is the only language that has both "Tar" and "Tarik". This suggests Iran which neighbors Sumer lands in Iraq as the likely source of the English word "dark" originating in Sumerian Turkish language!
What connects Central and South Asia to the British Isles: Ancient Migrations proven by DNA data"Added March 22, 2018: Many Early East Germanic (Eastern Goth / Ostrogoth, Gepid) Noble Women from 500 AD were Turks from Central Asia: East Germanic DNA in Bavaria
The study is about the period of the Hun invasions of Europe. Huns were mostly Turkish mixed with Mongolian, Hungarian and other tribes."
Is it this migration or a prior one that brought this word to Europe? Is it via the Eurasian Steppes or the Balkans and the Mediterranean?
The answer can be found after analyzing Greek god Tartarus, Celtic god Taranis and Latin word "ater" in addition to migration data.
In my article Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus I had stated that the Sumerian word Gugalanna is the basis for the Irish Cú Chulainn. Gu+gal+anna= bull+big+sky/heaven using additive (agglutinative) property of the Sumerian Turkish language.
Wikipedia entry says:" Cú Chulainn shows striking similarities to the legendary Persian hero Rostam, as well as to the Germanic Lay of Hildebrand and the labours of the Greek epic hero Heracles, suggesting a common Indo-European origin, but lacking in linguistic, anthropological and archaeological material."
Unfortunately the genetic info is out there on the research papers published online but the heavy censorship of Wikipedia editors can be felt even in this article.
Jules Oppert who gave the name Sumer to the civilization in the 1860s, linked Gutian invaders of Sumer to the Goths of Europe recorded 2500 years later. I had already suggested that this was indeed correct with additional evidence in my book Sumerian Turks: Civilization's Journey from Siberia to Mesopotamia
Tartarus was the dark abyss below Hades in Greek mythologyIt was also the name of the dungeon for the Greek gods. I had explained its etymology in my previous article. The name is still listed as of uncertain origins while a very similar Sumerian god by the name Namtar shows the obvious Greek-Sumer connection.
Namtar, the Sumerian god of death and the underworldNamtar literally means fate decree, "tar" meaning "decree" and "nam" "fate". It was a minor deity in Mesopotamian mythology but its name and function parallels Greek Tartarus. The Sumerian - Greek civilization connection was known since decades, and it is more than puzzling that noone looks into Sumerian Turkish and Hurrian to find the origins of the Greek gods!
Latin word for black, dark: AterWiktionary states a correct etymology connecting it to the Proto-Iranian word for fire, "atar":
"From Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁ter- (“fire”) (whence Proto-Iranian *ātar- (“fire”), Umbrian 𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀 (atru), Oscan 𐌔𐌉𐌉𐌓𐌝𐌃𐌀𐌀 (Aadíriis), Old Irish áith (“kiln”))."
These words are clearly connected to Sumerian word/suffix TAR not only by geography but by mythology and language.
Vyacheslav V. Ivanov states that Latin word "Ater" seems related to the Hurrian word for fire "tari" and Avestan "atar" in his important work on Indo-European origins:
Comparative Notes on Hurro-Urartian, Northern Caucasian and Indo-European
He also makes very important remarks concerning the connections of this word to the related words in Ossetian, Czech, Latin, and other Indo-European languages.
TAR is a key root word suffix for Indo-European languagesTAR is a very important word for many world languages, ancient and modern, but for Indo-European languages, it is of special importance.
The word "atar" is a key word and I had stated that the root Tar was formed through At+ar with an initial vowel drop Atar > Tar. This word was critical in establishing Indo-European roots: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
Atreus, mythical Mycenaean king and Atys Lydian king are also relatedI provide some examples in my articles, you may see the full picture of the Indo-European roots in my books.
I try to list rules and give some examples rather than an exhaustive list. The reader may make new discoveries using the rules.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)