By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on October 8, 2019, Updated on January, 24 2020
PART V: Is it the Caucasus mountains or the Taurus / Zagros ? Indo-European Homeland Proven!
PART IV: English, Greek, Latin and other Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
PART III: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus
PART II: Incontrovertible proof: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish.
PART I: Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans
- Major genetics news (March 2019) from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles on the origin of Indo-European languages! The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J.
The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
It's not only the word for earth that connects world languages. Let's talk sweet : Honey and mead in world languages
Etymology of the word "earth" across world languages
The word earth has amazingly deep roots in the history of human language. Digging deep with the help of archaeogenetics (the study of ancient genomes) and archaeology provides the opportunity to see never-before-seen connections.
Moreover, the ancient root word for "earth" is ancestral to many similar words and their descendants in many languages including English, manifesting itself in words such as earth, origin, order, garden, yard, run, agriculture etc.
First let's look at language, at the history of the word "earth".
Wiktionary says : "From Middle English erthe, from Old English eorþe (“earth, ground, soil, dry land”), from Proto-Germanic *erþō (“earth, ground, soil”) (compare West Frisian ierde, Low German Eerd, Dutch aarde, Dutch Low Saxon eerde, German Erde, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian jord), related to *erwô (“earth”) (compare Old High German ero, perhaps Old Norse jǫrfi), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁er-
Probably unrelated, and of unknown etymology, is Old Armenian երկիր (erkir, “earth”). Likewise, the phonologically similar Proto-Semitic *ʾarṣ́- – whence Arabic أَرْض (ʾarḍ), Hebrew אֶרֶץ (ʾereṣ) – is probably not related."
As you can see the word is found with similar sound and meaning in other languages but Wiktionary says that they are probably unrelated. We will not only check whether these words are related but we will go as deep as possible in history! Ancient migration information recovered from studies on ancient genomes will help with our quest in addition to deeper research in language.
Etymonline says the word earth derives from Proto-Indo-European *er-.
Wiktionary has more detailed information, the etymology of the word "earth" is connected to the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root constructed as: h₁er- where we find the following information :
"Of unknown origin. Possibly a late West Central Indo-European dialectal word.
Within Nostratic framework derived from Proto-Nostratic *ʔer-a (“earth, ground”) (Bomhard 2015) or *ʔarV̄ (“earth, land, place”) (Dolgopolsky)
with cognates such as:
Proto-Afro-Asiatic *ʔ[e]r-t͜ɬ’ (“earth, ground”): Proto-Semitic *ʾarṣ́-, West Chadic *HVrit͜ɬ’- (“earth”), East Chadic *ʔirt͜ɬ’- (“valley”). Dravidian: Kannada [script needed] (ere, “black soil”), Telugu రేగడ (rēgaḍa), రేగడి (rēgaḍi, “clay”), (prefixed forms of గడ్డ (gaḍḍa, “clod”))"
We clearly see that the English word "earth" and related modern Indo-European words derive from a hypothetical ancestral Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word "-her" which is listed as of unknown origins. However, similar words exist in other languages hence a proto-Nostratic root is suggested.
Nostratic is a reconstructed hypothetical language from which a big majority of world languages is said to descend from. The early beginnings of this theory go back to Danish linguist Holger Pedersen's article published in 1903 where he favorably compared Turkish to Indo-European languages and to Italian linguist Alfredo Trombetti's article in 1905 where he suggested that all languages of the world go back to a common root.
Proto-Nostratic which is proposed to have existed before Nostratic is believed to date as far back as 12,000-15,000 years ago, hence towards the end of the Paleolithic Age, around the Late Glacial Maximum.
Linguists use a method called "comparative method" to reconstruct ancient languages for which we have no written records, but that method is limited beyond the 5000 years mark.
Most linguists take an agnostic/neutral view towards Proto-Nostratic while others reject it.
I will show that existing words from Sumerian written records from 5000 years ago, and modern Turkish can easily explain the word "earth" and its relatives in other Indo-European languages. Not only that, I will also show that these words perfectly relate to the examples given in the proto-Nostratic reconstructions as well as those in Afroasiatic/Semitic and Chadic languages!
Moreover, I will lay out how the history of ancient migrations as evidenced by archaeogenetics, archaeology as well as other linguistic mass comparisons across Eurasia, Americas, Africa and Australia fit the information I give below.
The proto-Indo-European root for "earth" some Indo-European words derive from is h₁er-. And Proto-Nostratic *ʔer-a (“earth, ground”) (Bomhard 2015) or *ʔarV̄ (“earth, land, place”) (Dolgopolsky)
Let's start with real, attested words from Turkish and Sumerian.
Turkish "yer" found also in Orhun scripts, means "land, ground".
Turkish word "kır" means "meadow" and is related to "yer" in sound and meaning.
And there is "kara" which means "land" but also has another meaning: black! Compare with Dravidian "ere" "black soil" (Turkish "kara toprak" -black earth- is a saying to denote "mother earth").
"Yurt", is pretty close in sound to the English word "earth", and almost exactly same as Norwegian, Danish and Swedish word "jord (earth, land) ". Turkish word "yurt" means not only tent (the tent mostly used by the nomadic people of the Steppes) but also the land where people stay, and the word "yurt" later meant country. As to the ending "t" it was a plural marker in Old Turkish and "Ut" means "fire/sun" in Turkish/Sumerian. Aramaic אַרְעָא (ʾarʿā) means earth. Aramaic seems closer to Sumerian than other Near Eastern languages. We may see the transformation of t > z in Arabic "arz" (earth). Arabic "Arş" means "sky, throne", and shows t>ş transformation.
Turkish "Yöre" means "place", "neighborhood".
"Yörük" is the name of the Turkish people who practice transhumance in the Taurus mountains in southern Turkey.
The name is yör+ük, while "-ük" is a suffix denoting people/kinship/relative. "Yör" is from "Uğur > ğur > yur > yör".
Yörük people are known as descendants of an ancient Turkish people who still practice some ancient customs, though their numbers have considerably decreased due to urbanization. I have already shown that "Huur" (The root for Hurrian who lived in the same mountains as Turkish Yoruk 3500 years ago) was in fact Uğur.
Çayır = Meadow
Kar = Snow (compares with Sumerian "kur" (mountain, land) as well as root "Kar" for many European mountain names)
Now, let's look at Sumerian words from (University of Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary) we have:
Ur = Base, root, roof
Uru = Vicinity
Iri = City
Kur = Land
Agar = Meadow
Eraş = Earth (note t>ş, hence quite possible that earth was "erat")
Sar = Garden
Kiri = Orchard, plantation
There are a few other words that are conceptually related.
The words for "totality/whole" are important proxies for earth/ground: Sumerian "dur" and "şar"(š=ş) which is also the word for "king" in Akkadian, Turkish "her" (=every), Persian "har" which compares well with both English words: "every" and "where" as well as other related words "here" and "there".
Akkadian word "şar" which is from "tar" (t>ş is a common transformation in Ancient Mesopotamian records, see Analyzing history through "tar"). In slave societies and monarchies, kings owned the whole land, hence the word for king which has a meaning "totality/whole" is relevant. The word "dur" is from "tur", the root for Turuk/Turk attested in Mesopotamian written records since at least 2400 BC.
Another word of interest in Sumerian is "sahar"(dust, earth, land) which appropriately reminds us of the famed African desert Sahara. The word "sahra" and Proto-Afro-Asiatic *c̣aḥVraʔ- means desert in Afroasiatic languages and in Proto-West Chadic: *ʔac̣VHVr- /*c̣VHir-, Boghom: šiir [Cs], Kulere: ʔasóór [JgR].
In all, nine Turkish words, "ora", "yer","kır","kar","kara","yurt" "yöre", "yörük", "her", and twelve Sumerian words "ur", "uru", "agar", "sahar", "iri", "uraş", "dur", "şar", "sar", "tir", "kiri" and "kur" match the PIE root (*her- / er-) and the proto-Nostratic root (*ʔer-a/*ʔarV̄) and existing Chadic, Afroasiatic words perfectly.
This is more evidence than you can find in any other language. It's hard to find such strong connections in etymology.
In genetics, the closer one gets to the ancestral location, the more genetic variations are observed. A similar thing is seen here with the language: the number of variations of "ğur" which seem to be highest in Turkish/Sumerian whose ancestral home is Siberia/Central Asia.
I should add Basque too, as the root "ur" is a very versatile root in Basque: herri / erri (country, people), harri (stone), uharte (island), harpe (cave), harea (sand), hara (there), gari (wheat), garau (seed), Har/aar/ar (worm). There is also another word using "ur/ar": lur/lurra (earth), and its derivatives -lurrak (land), lurrera (ground), lurzorua (soil), lorategi (garden) lurte (landslide), belardia (meadow)- . Haran (means valley; compare the name Harran, major valley in Southeast Turkey), ibar (valley).
Basque "Elur" means "snow" and the connection to "lur" (earth) is suggested as evidence of Ice Age roots of the Basque language. Same with Turkish "kar" snow and "kara" land.
Sumerian and Basque connection is well established (see links and info in my articles and books). Moreover, Basque has Afroasiatic affinities too, which is quite important!
Let us note that Sumerian is the oldest language in record, dating to 3000-2500 BC.
With all the above information from Sumerian and Turkish we can easily construct the original sound as "Uğur" deriving from ur as uğ+ur, (later ağar) from which "yer", "kur", "kır", "agar", "kara", "yurt" derive, and this Turkish word "ğur" is very similar to Proto-Indo-European "h₁er-" in sound and meaning.
PIE= Proto-Indo-European the hypothetical language all Indo-European languages is said to derive from.
Turkish word "yer" (earth,land) written also as "jer" has different forms in Turkish dialects such as: Chuvash şer, Yakut sir, Dolgan hir, Kazakh žer, Tuva çer and Mongolian Oyrat der. in line with Sumerian and other languages in the table above. Note how the initial consonant changes in different Turkish dialects but the ending "er" stays the same! This "UR/AR/ER" is one of the oldest roots for ground/earth and we see additions as suffix or prefix. The most common is "h/ğ" prefix deriving from "Ağ/Uğ".
Moreover, Turkish root "tur" I listed in the above table, has Eskimo-Aleut "tarru", Proto-Kartvelian: *mṭwe[r]- correspondants. I have already shown that "PIE *ters- (“dry”)" derives from "tar" (for more see the link and info below).
Sumerian "sahar" means "dust, earth, soil" and its Akkadian counterpart is "eperu". The words for valley in Basque "ibar" and Akkadian "eperu", Sumerian "sahar" and Basque "haran" (har/ğar root in both) show their common root. Basque "herri/erri" country/people as seen above.
Akkadians were the Northern neighbors of Sumerians who invaded their land around 2400 BC. They may have Caucasian roots shared by the Hattis! They lived in southeast Anatolia/Turkey/Northern Syria. The connection of Basque to Northern Caucasian is certain ( Basque and Its Closest Relatives: A New Paradigm (annotated December 2017) by John Bengtson) as well as its connection to Altaic (Turkish)-Uralic (Hungarian) and Anatolia (Turkey).
Akkadian word "ugaru" means valley and "kiparu" pasture. Watch the "k" initial we find in Basque as "h" as well the g-p correspondance that is regular in Sumerian and other languages! That is from Turkish uğ/ğ and is observed across languages and languages families. Compare Basque Herri "country" and Hurri (Hurrians) from Southeast Turkey from the same period as Akkadians. Also consider modern Turkish valley name Harran to the North of Sumer and within Akkadian lands to Basque "haran" meaning valley.
Tur= This word does not have an initial meaning of land, earth. However, in time it meant so, just like its correspondant "Tar" from "Atar". From unattested Atur of ancient sun beliefs, land, people. Dictionary meaning: lineage, descent, breed. Its descendant is modern Turkish "töre" meaning social order. Root of ethnonym Turuk, Turk. See below in the article how the word for land/earth is related to the words for people, lineage. This is a Eurasiatic-Afroasiatic root as well with Korean tirra, Eskimo-Aleut Tarru, Korean tiri, Dravidian tur, Kartvelian mtwer, Afroasiatic : Cushitic *ḍur, Berber *-ḍir-, Chadic. *tVr- 'dirt', Sino-Caucasian : *tV́rV̆.
Sumerian "arali" land/earth, Akkadian "erşetu" land use the same stem but with suffixes rather than prefixes. Finnish "aro" steppes also is a good match and as you will see below is related to Old Norse "or" and Latin aro meaning to plough and the basis of the English word "arable" and the root h₂erh₃- is already listed in the above table.
PIE = Proto-Indo-European, reconstructed hypothetical words from which many Indo-European words including Ancient Greek and Sanskrit words as well as modern English words like "earth", "garden", "yard", "area", "agriculture", "run" etc. is said to derive.
Proto-Austronesian "*daʀəq / darek" (earth) must also be added to the table above. Austronesian languages form a large family that includes languages spoken in Indonesia, Phillipines, Vietnam, Laos, and Hawaiian.
Pay particular attention to the Chadic language in the table above. This will give us a major clue on the connection of these languages, see archaeogenetics section.
The words "earth", "to fix", and "to move"The connection between the words for "earth", "base" and "to move" is seen in both Sumerian and Turkish.
Turkish word "kur" (to build), Turkish "urug" (social organization), Sumerian "ur" (base), Sumerian ancient cities Ur, Urug as well as the first city in the world Eridu.
"Base" and "land/ground/earth" are also conceptually related as well as "to fix, to build" as seen in words above.
More conceptual relations to the word ground, in a way like action-reaction in physics: "to move/to walk/to drag".
Let's check if we can see this relation in words: "yuru" means to "walk" in Turkishfoot, "ura" foot in Chuvash (Ogur Turkish) and er "to reach", sur means to drag, and sürü animal horde. "urug" also means animal horde in ancient Turkish. (English word "drag" and Turkish "sur" mean the same and English "drag" can easily be constructed as "dur/sur+ag" in Turkish).
Sumerian "ere" means "to go", "ur" "to drag", certainly related to Turkish words "yuru" to walk, "sur" (drag), "er" to reach and the "y" initial is "ğ" from "uğ" which is frequently found in many languages as I have shown. So not only sound, and meaning match but the word-making suffix/prefix match as well.
In Sumerian/Turkish "Ur/kur" for "base" and "Ere/Ur/Er/Yuru/Sur" for "to go/to walk/to reach/to drag" confirms this conceptual relation between ground and movement.
And this is not only Sumerian-Turkish thing. We find "UR" root in hypotethical Proto-Nostratic *ʕur∇Kʼ∇ 'to flee' (12,000-15000 years ago).
The connection is valid for Proto-Indo-European reconstructions too, and not in one but in multiple cases all related to each other. See below:
h₂er- to fit, to fix, to put together (order etc.)
gʰerdʰ- enclosure (garden, yard, etc.)
h₂erh₃- to plough.
h₂éǵros field (agriculture etc.)
h₃er- to move, to spring (run, origin, orient etc.).
The word "herd" whose variants are found in Indo-European languages, is also related. (Compare Turkish "suru" where we see h-s correspondance like in Centum and Satem Indo-European languages! The suggested proto-indo-european root for herd is *kerdh-" but the initial "k" is actually "ğ" as seen in the above examples and hence related to the word "earth", Turkish "yurt" which is the word for the tent of nomadic Turks, who migrate with their herds of animals. The word "kurd" is said to mean nomad and is in line with PIE *kerdh-" and also in line with Turkish "yoruk", a word for nomad.
The difference between differently reconstructed laryngeals seen in PIE reconstructions, "h₁,h₂,h₃ (h1,h2 and h3)" is small, and I consider them all as "ğ" as in "uğur". There may have been such differences but certainly these differences are smaller than people think.
Moreover Indo-European "to plough" (h₂erh₃-) is constructed by adding "uğ" to "uğur" (uğuruğ > ğurğ) and this is an occurence seen across many languages, for example yoruk, from "uğuruğ".
Normally, I am skeptical of some Proto-Indo-European reconstructions, but in the above list, the reconstructions are supported not only by many existing Indo-European words but also both by existing Sumerian and Turkish words. Hence, they show a root word shared across language families.
"ğur/hur"is not the only word that spans the globe. In Global etymologies by linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, we find another word reconstructed for earth, "tika", whose descendants are said to be in languages spanning five continents. So there are two words for earth that spans the globe: "tika" and "ur/uğur/ağar".
In the article by Bengston and Ruhlen, we see conceptual relationship between "earth/ground" and "foot" confirmed: "tika" (earth) and "teku" (foot). Note Turkish "adak" means foot, see Words for foot and leg in world languages
In Sumerian another word for "earth" "ki" is related to "kaş" (runner), "kas du", "kas sar","kas dug" (run) and koş (run) in Turkish. The word run could be constructed as Ki (land) + Sumerian plural suffix eš/eş , hence many lands, many grounds would mean run. Sumerian plural marker "ş" compares to Old Turkish plural marker "t" thorugh known t > ş. Another word for "run" is "sar" which also means garden.
Old Norse word "ur" which means "out of, beyond"An attentive reader Stig-Ove Madetoja tweeted me in swedish Ur means going out or exiting . This word too is related to ground/earth. The Swedish word also used in Danish and Norwegian as "out" is from Old Norse ór which is listed to be from Proto-Germanic *uz (“out of”) which then is from Proto-Indo-European *úd-s (“up, off”), from *úd (“out, outward”).
We have seen that the root "ur" (Turkish and Sumerian) is related to "to go", "to reach" and also the roots for words related to earth. Can we add the meaning "out, beyond"?
Latin ora, Ancient Greek ὅρος (hóros) , Latvian "ara" Irish or all mean bprder. Turkish word "ora" (=there) which is sometimes used with a pointing finger gesture show far away locations "there".
The most interesting part is the Turkish sound change/correspondance rule observed from Ogur to Oguz Turkish dialects it is the rule of "r-z".
We see it exactly in Old Norse "ur" and proto-Germanic "uz" means the same as "out of". And it is not only in sound but in meaning too, this corresponds to Turkish "uz" which means distant!
While this clearly is not a coincidence, you might ask whether this can be seen in the migration info that comes from genetic studies. Yes, for sure. (I had added to my site on March 22, 2018: Many Early East Germanic (Eastern Goth / Ostrogoth, Gepid) Noble Women from 500 AD were Turks from Central Asia:East Germanic DNA in Bavaria)
Turkish word "uz" means distant and "duz" means flat, and also used for flat terrains with the noun maker suffix "luk" (duz+luk= duzluk= flat terrain) the flat terrains like we see in the Eurasian Steppes!
The Germanic word "uz" is said to derive from "ut". This sound change t > z is very well established in Mesopotamian records. Ut means sun in Sumerian, fire in Turkish and certainly have "the above" concept. And t - z conversion is very well known within Indo-European too and in the context of the word ground. See Greek words ἔραζε (éraze) on the ground and ἔρασδε (érasde, “on the earth”) From Wiktionary:
Resembles Proto-Germanic *erþō (“earth, ground, soil”), whence Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌸𐌰 (airþa), Old Norse jǫrð, Old English eorþe, English earth, and Proto-Celtic *arwī, whence Welsh erw (“field”). Possibly all come from Proto-Indo-European *h₁er- (“earth”), but the reconstruction is not certain.
We see r-z within Indo-European. Compare Turkish "orada" (there) and "yerde" (on the ground) we see not only great match in root "ur" but also suffix "de/ze" (=on/at).
A sidenote: The Old Norse word urð meaning pile of rock and the area of fallen rock from Proto-Germanic/wurþiz means rising, related to Greek arsis "raising", compares to Arabic arş (sky) and ard (land).
Earth and Birth - Earth and ManIn some languages "man" and "earth" sound alike, in line with Sumerian beliefs that humans were made of mud/earth. (See Etymology of the word "clan", Irish oglach, Greek Augeas, Etruscan clan).
Turkish "ure" means "to breed" and its derivatives like "urug" mean "seed" etc. The word "ur" is also a root for both man (er, uri) and woman (uragut) in ancient Turkish via Nurhan Guner's important uragut article)
Moreover, "ur" means sprinkle and progeny in Turkish, water in Basque, and is a root for water related words in Sumerian too. Sumerian "ur" means "man/he", "erin" people. Indo-European "ar" as in "aryan" is also related Turkish "er / uri", Hungarian úr (master) and Proto-Finno-Ugric *urɜ (“man, male”) as in the words Ural. German Herr (mister), gentleman, noble Old Norse "herr" (army), Spanish hermano brother, Basque "aur" child all go to the same root "ur / ar". Basque herri / erri means both country and people. "H" initial is the "ğ" from "uğ" (people, kind, family) in Turkish. Basque gaur seed with g/h initial and Turkish plural suffix "lar" (ul+ar). Basque iturri=spring, Turkish kar=snow. (For more see Archaeogenetics and the birth of human language and Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish.)
Proto-Nostratic word for seed, grain: bar and also closely related proto-Nostratic *ʔaR∇ – ‘member of one’s clan/family’.
Notice the Proto-Nostratic word for "clan, member of a family" is almost the same as the word for earth (*ʔer-a/*ʔarV̄).
"Ur" is one major root for earth but also the root for words for water and progeny. I had shown how "uğ" and "ur" and later "us" (Indo-European "us", "-es" meaning "to be") were "totemic" sounds upon which similar word constructions are established, such as uğ+ur=uğur and uğ+us=uğus, at+ur=atur and are drivers of new words.
"Ar/Ağar" is not the only globe spanning word for earth. In Sumerian and Turkish we find three words for father and three words for mother (see Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
As seen above, in Global etymologies by linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, we find another word reconstructed for earth, "tika", whose descendants are said to be in languages spanning five continents. So there are two words for earth that spans the globe: "tika" and "uğur/ağar".
Proto-Indo-European word dʰéǵʰōm (earth) fits "tika+um" and Turkish "doğum" = birth perfectly. Is it a coincidence that birth and earth rhyme? More info at Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
In Nj's arya's blogpost titled Indo-European connection we find user User Kyriakos Samelis' important comment where he compares Greek "teknon" (child) and Hittite "tekan" (earth) without checking their deep etymologies and also mentions Albanian word tokë which means earth (from Wiktionary):
"A substrate word, close to Ancient Greek τόπος (tópos, “place”) (cf. darkë vs. δόρπον (dórpon, “supper, dinner; evening”)
An ancient loan from a substrate source, close to Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 (tēkan)" And under Wiktionary tēkan entry:
"From Proto-Anatolian *déǵm̥ (cognate with Luwian 𒋾𒄿𒀀𒄠𒈪𒅖 (tiyammiš), 𔓤 (takam)), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm (“earth”) (cognate with Sanskrit क्ष (kṣa), Avestan 𐬰𐬃 (zā̊), Ancient Greek χθών (khthṓn), Tocharian A tkaṃ, Tocharian B keṃ, Albanian dhe, Latin humus, Old Irish dú, Lithuanian žẽmė, Old Church Slavonic землꙗ (zemlja).)"
There are two important observations to be made, first obvious connection of the PIE word for earth "*dʰéǵʰōm" to Turkish "doğum" (birth). Greek teknon goes to PIE root "tek" which I have shown was Turkish "doğ" (to be born).
The other is the Albanian word "darkë" which means "evening, dinner" and is from a substrate (foreign) source just like the Albanian word "tokë" (earth) and is also connected to the Hittite the word for earth "tekan". These two words evening and earth are linked in Albanian just like we have seen in Turkish saying for mother earth "kara toprak" (dark earth). Albanian is one of the most interesting of Indo-European languages, linguists find it hard to classify. Dravidian "ere" black soil is connected. Can it be connected to black soils in India or is black soil a mythical term to cover burial, death and life cycle? The latter seems more probable. Whatever the case, the association of black and earth is a very important cultural marker found in languages and can be used to find ancient roots.
Mother earth is an important saying found across languages. In Turkish we find an extra association with it "dark earth" which we also see in Latin "terra" (earth) and "ater" (black). This association is an extra and can be used as a tracer dye connecting cultures and languages.
Etymology of dark shows the connection between English word dark, Persian: تاریک (fa) (târik), تار (fa) (târ), تیره (fa) (tīre), Tajik: торик (tg) (torik), Scottish Gaelic dorcha, Irish dorcha.
The words for fire also relate to the word for black/dark
Dark, Tar, Terra and EarthPer Wiktionary Proto-Austronesian "*daʀəq / darek" = earth and in Proto-Austronesian Phonology with Glossary by John U. Wolff we find the word proto-Austronesian "dağek".
Wİktionary has this etymology for Latin terra (land, earth): From Proto-Indo-European *ters- (“dry”). Cognates include torreō, Ancient Greek τέρσομαι (térsomai), Old Irish tír, Sanskrit तृष्यति (tṛṣyati) and Old English þurst (English thirst).
In Analyzing history through "tar" I had shown how the word "tar" shows connections about ancient civilizations. Compare Latin "terra"=Earth found in English terrestrial.
Ancient Greek τόπος (tópos, “place”) compares to Turkish "toprak" "soil" as Greek top+us vs. Turkish top+uruk, the latter found from Turkish, Sumerian to Dravidian "uruk". (side note: The alternation of "darke" and "dars" (banquet, dinner) in Albanian adds to the overwhelming evidence to the alternation of "uğ/uk" vs. "us".) See also Turkish and Mongolian toprak comparison and Toprak in Turkish dialects.
Turkish Toprak (soil, land), Dravidian regada (clay), Austronesian darek (earth), Persian Tarik (dark) and English dark are cognates, derive from the same building blocks mean the same/similar. Can you explain the "p" in toprak? (Hint it was "toğrak", More hint: Sun Language Theory).
Latin "terra" derives from "Tar" and has consonant doubling, typical of Near Eastern Afroasiatic languages. This feature is found in Huur > Hurri (Hurrian) too, and in many other Afroasiatic and ancient Akkadian words, as seen in Turuk > Turukku, Şar > Şarru, examples are plenty. This is another proof of Etruscan and Latin origins (see Etruscan origins
Following the word for land allow us to follow migrations, especially valuable to combine with genetics.
In Some thoughts on Dravidian-Turkic-Sanskrit lexical comparisons by José Andrés Alonso de la Fuente we see a ridiculous refutal of the connection of Turkish - Dravidian established by Russian Turcologist Kenesbay Musaev and its "Nostraticist nature". After linguistic "refutals" the author even goes on to say that such ancient connections between Altaic and Dravidian people is impossible.
We now know for sure that West Siberian Hunter Gatherers from the region around Altai mountains were in the periphery of Indus Valley civilization at least by 4500 BC. See The Formation of Human Populations in South and Central Asia I could not find Musayev's article online but the refutal serves like a proof of the Turkish and Dravidian connection!
In by Sosale Chandrasekhar, an apparent sprinkling of Altaic words in a Dravidian language (Kannada) Possible historical significance for South Asia we see comparison of 93 words.
Also note that Dravidian languages spoken in parts of India today had an influence on Munda (Austroasiatic) and Indo-Aryan languages, see also A Bayesian phylogenetic study of the Dravidian language family.
More linguistic proof of the connection of languages in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and AustraliaConsider M-T pronouns (m,n,t) suggested by Johanna Nichols and David A. Peterson.
m-t pronoun languages on world map This is a very important grouping of pronouns over Eurasia, Americas, Africa and Australia holds across language families!
One can easily see the correlation of the pronouns with the known migration history of the last 20,000 years. Archaeogenetics and linguistics match very closely.
In 2013, a computer based researh using modern languages was published: Ultraconserved words point to deep language ancestry across Eurasia Quote from the paper:
"Here we use a statistical model, which takes into account the frequency with which words are used in common everyday speech, to predict the existence of a set of such highly conserved words among seven language families of Eurasia postulated to form a linguistic superfamily that evolved from a common ancestor around 15,000 y ago."
The research showed the existence of a common Eurasian language from 15000 years ago, but we should note that they did not use ancient languages like Sumerian whose written records go back to 5000 years ago.
Media reports of the study: Science Says These are the Oldest 23 Words in the English Language - Linguists identify 15,000-year-old ‘ultraconserved words’ - 'Ultraconserved Words' Have Persisted Since Ice Age, Study Suggests
I have shown that the number of ultraconserved words are much more than 23, including earth, I analyze in this article.
Haplogroup R1b and its subclade R1b- v88 found in Africa (from North Africa to Chad)
Modern distribution of Haplogroup R1b
Usually genes do not correlate to languages, but there are exceptions. The further back in time one goes the higher the correlation. There are also many cases where one can rule out certain languages or favor others based on migration and population mixing information received from ancient genome studies.
In the Nostratic construction for the word "earth", we see Chadic languages and Protoafroasiatic/Semitic completely in line with Sumerian, Turkish and Indo-European and related also to Basque.
The most important genetic piece of evidence is the connection of Chadic languages to y-haplogroup R1b - v88 as well as to the people in North Africa and the Levant, since these haplogroups are from Asia. This Near Eastern connection establishes a major footstep in connecting Ancient languages and haplogroups/migrations.
Turkish "Yoruk" people and African "Yoruba" do share a similar name and the ancient migration from around the Taurus and Levant to Africa is a fact.
Haplogroup R1b is a major haplogroup found among Europeans, as well as among Baskirs in RUssia, in Central Asia in addition to very specific subclade in Africa, R1b-V88.
R1b is born in Central Asia or Western Asia and its parent R, in Siberia.
Reminding here, Anatole Klyosov's very important research works, including his website on ancient Turkish history. DNA Genealogy and Linguistics. Ancient Europe by Anatole A. Klyosov, Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli and Ancient History of the Arbins, Bearers of Haplogroup R1b, from Central Asia to Europe, 16,000 to 1500 Years before Present and Anatole A. Klyosov.
Gobeklitepe, Shigir Idol, American Pacific Northwest totems are related
The most ancient wooden sculpture in the world, The Shigir Idol, 9600 BC. It was Found in the Urals, Russia in 1894. The totem pole is contemporaneous with Gobeklitepe, southeast Turkey, some 2500 kilometers away.
Culturally and artistically, Gobeklitepe totem pole and Shigir Idol are related. We now know that the people who built them are also geneticaly related. See: Genetic proof: Gobeklitepe, Shigir Idol, American Pacific Northwest totems are related
Tartaria tabletsTartaria tablets from Wikimedia info:
Tartaria tablets Wikimedia info: Discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about 30 km from Alba Iulia), in Romania. The tablets, dated to around 5500-5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists, some of whom claim that the symbols represent the earliest known form of writing in the world.
In an article on Tartaria Tablets, Basics, or starting point for I-European and Tartaria people rituals. the author stresses that for 12 years he sustained and stressed in a continous way that in upper half, in the left corner we have the signs for letters “HR”. . He goes on to explain religious significance of the tablets in Indo-European religion. At this point I should say that the worldview he describes is found among Turks from Siberia and Sumer.
The word earth in your languageWhat is the word for Earth in other languages?
If you are going to check the word for "earth" in your language, please note that the ancient root "uğur(t)" may today mean something other than "earth" but rather a related one, such as garden, like Hungarian kert = English garden. This also shows that Indo-European and Uralic share the same root kert-. Instead of earth, the word today might mean soil, ground and other very closely related words. (Hungarian American professor of computer science who is also working on historical computational linguistics Peter Revesz informed me of two more words in Hungarian: "erdő" forest and "ugar" a type of land called 'fallow' in English). Even the relationship between "garden" and "yard" parallels the one in Turkish and shows the existence of "ğ" which disappeared.
For example "English area" which is from "Latin "area" goes to the same root, and is related to Hittite (ḫaḫḫar, “rake, threshing tool”) per Wiktionary.
The word for "earth, soil, ground" in Finnish is " maa" (similar words exist in other Uralic languages) and mother "aiti". They do not look/sound alike. "Ama" is mother in Sumerian and Ati mother in Etruscan. Is this a coincidence? Can we speak about the association of mother and earth in Finnish? Finnish is related to both Etruscan and Sumerian. This shows that the association of "mother" and "earth" need not have sound correspondance within the same language. It shows an ancient link but above all a major hint about the migrations of the people and the languages they spoke then and with whom they interacted in ancient history. This unrelatedness in current language is actually an independant variable in engineering terms and would help us in reconstructions when there are no written records. For example Finnish is connected to PIE *meǵh₂s (great, big) and I have shown that in Turkish, the word would be written as um+ağ(+us) (for details please see Master, Magister, Major) and connected to many other ancient words including Turkish, Arabic, Persian words.
As seen above, at times the association of mother/birth and earth is obvious and direct which gives a very important and direct information about the relatedness of ancient people/languages at other times it is indirect and we need work to reconstruct but in that case we can see finer details about the migrations/people.
In wiktionary the origin of the word Taurus (bull) shows the connection of Indo-European to Afroasiatic languages, just like the word earth. See Bull, ox and taurus. Bull was first domesticated in the Taurus mountains in Turkey some 10,000 years ago and then spread to Africa, Europe and Asia from there.
The word "red" is the only color name that is shared across many Indo-European languages. Origins of the English word Red, its Indo-European counterparts and Sumerian word for Copper reveals deep Sumerian connection and hints at the Urheimat of Indo-European languages.
Another World's firstThis article establishes another world's first, by establishing links from multiple language groups such as Indo-European, Afroasiatic, Altaic as well as supposedly isolate Sumer and Basque too. I have already shown that Sumerian was related to Turkish, and added articles that proves Sumerian to be related to Uralic (Hungarian and Finnish) and Dravidian too.
I have also further linked ancient genome studies to at least one root sound shared accoss language families.
Further information can be found in my books and articles. Sun Language Theory is not only alive but beaming so hard that I have to wear shades while working. And no, the screen is fine.
The relationship of Indo-European languages to other languages in Eurasia: Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan Relevant for Latin - Etruscan connection too! And equally important is the Etymology of the word "clan", Irish oglach, Greek Augeas, Etruscan clan and how Sumerian is related to all.
Words for foot and leg in world languages connect linguistic families in five continents
(Click to read the article and see full size image)
Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
(Click on the image for the answer)
Sun Language TheoryTurkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)