By Mehmet Kurtkaya, First Published on November 28, 2017 Updated April 2, 2019
MAIN ARTICLE Etruscan Origins
ALL THE GENETIC STUDIES DONE IN THE LAST 20 YEARS TO DETERMINE THE ORIGINS OF THE ETRUSCAN PEOPLE
First of all, let's look at the only study claiming to support Indigenous "thesis" (lie)Genetic Study on MtDNA Samples from Etruscan Tombs published in 2013.
Unfortunately, this study is misused by the Wikipedia editors as proof of autochthonous "thesis" (lie). There are no links in Wikipedia to most other genetic studies I list below! That's a typical lying by omission tactic frequently used by Wikipedia and Western academics, in Sumerian articles too!
The study done on the samples from the graves suggests that the people whose remains were analyzed in the study might have migrated from Anatolia 5000 years ago at the latest, so they were not the migrant Etruscans.
It is genetically proven that all the early farmers of Europe had migrated from Anatolia! So this study showed that these people were locals who might have arrived with the previous migration wave from Anatolia and not with the Etruscan wave.
Nobody claims that when Etruscans migrated to Italy from Turkey, the land was not already inhabited. To the contrary, anyone with critical thinking skills and some knowledge on the matter says that Etruscans had migrated to a region where there were locals and they mixed with them, and in time, they enlarged their area of influence over Italy and parts of Central Europe to the North. Just like the migrant Sumerians and the local hunter gatherer people, Akkadians, some three thousand years before them! Migrant Sumerians had welcomed local Afroasiatic people, "Akkadians" into their own society.
Hence, finding local people remains in graves never proves that Etruscan culture was autochthonous! On the other hand, finding Near Eastern Anatolian DNA from the period of the migration, from around 1000 BC, in local Tuscans and local cattle proves beyond any doubt that the Etruscans had migrated from Turkey to Italy with their cattle, probably on ship out of Troy, and/or Symirna or anywhere in the Aegean coast of Turkey. It is also probable that some Etruscan migration waves took place by land, via the Balkans.
(More criticism about this study: the authors did not identify haplogroups for these ancient remains Additional testing of the coding region and re-testing of the control region are necessary to fully evaluate the ancient Etruscan samples in the context of ancient and modern populations)
Genetic study after genetic study proved beyond any doubt that 8-25% of current Tuscan population is of East Anatolian origin, and are descendants of the people who migrated from Turkey some 3000 years ago!
In fact even the original homeland of the Etruscans can be derived from the genetic studies: an area that covers parts of Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Southern Caucuses and Syria.
Genetic Studies Proving Southeastern Turkey, Northern Iraq, Syria, Iran as the Original homeland of the EtruscansNow, let's see ALL the genetic studies done between 1996 and 2018 that prove this fact (what you cannot find in Wikipedia due to censorship!)
First, let's look at the latest and most precise results on the map: The 2014 study and the 2015 study .
Note that while the latest genetic studies done in 2014 and 2015 prove the original homeland to be around Southeastern Turkey, the 2007 study showed relationship of the Tuscans with the people around Smryna / Izmir not far from Troy, Turkey. This is to be expected as the Turuk / Etruscan migrated from Eastern Turkey to Western Turkey before sailing towards Italy.
1996 The first genetic study suggesting Near Eastern origins of the Etruscans: Sequence diversity of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany and its implications for the peopling of Europe. Finding: "The pattern of mitochondrial variation in Tuscany indicates the persistence of an ancient European component subsequently enriched by migrational waves, possibly from the Middle East."
2004 The second important genetic study done on Etruscan remains from museums in Italy, supporting Oriental Thesis The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study. In Russian scientist Anatole Klyosov's great website on Turkic history Etruscan Genetics
2007 This was the year to safely declare
Etruscan civilization as of Anatolian (Turkey) origin.
"The shortest genetic distances between the Etruscan and modern populations are with Tuscans (FST=0.036; P=.0017) and Turks (FST=0.037; P=.0001)"
Mitochondrial DNA Variation of Modern Tuscans Supports the Near Eastern Origin of Etruscans Achilli, Piazza et. al. That same year, in 2007, Marco Pellecchia showed that DNA from Etruscan cattle was identical to that of cattle in Anatolia. and that these cattle must have reached Italy by sea. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus (cattle) mitochondrial DNA From the study:
"The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support."
2008 The Etruscan timeline: a recent Anatolian connection by
Francesca Brisighelli et al:
We found novel genetic evidences on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) establishing a genetic link between Anatolia and the ancient Etruria. By way of complete mtDNA genome sequencing of a novel autochthonous Tuscan branch of haplogroup U7 (namely U7a2a), we have estimated an historical time frame for the arrival of Anatolian lineages to Tuscany ranging from 1.1±0.1 to 2.3±0.4 kya B.P.
Compatible with the Etrurian culture (9th–1st century BC).
The typical Near Eastern U7 haplogroup occurs at relatively high frequency in the Elba Island.
2014 From the study:
"A genome-wide study of modern-day Tuscans: revisiting Herodotus's theory on the origin of the Etruscans by Pardo-Seco et al.
Some of their major findings: Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25-34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans and Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans."
The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600-3,100 years ago. On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. SEE THE RESULTS ON MAP
A very important genetic research work and analysis
DNA Study proves Near East as the original
homeland of the Etruscans
From the paper written by Alberto Gómez-Carballa , Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Jorge Amigo, Federico Martinón-Torres, Antonio Salas and published:
"Within the Near East, the main genetic signature comes from Iran, although this view could be distorted by an overrepresentation of this region in the database of mitogenomes from the Near East. The genetic link between Tuscans and other Near East populations (e.j. Syria, Armenia) is in good agreement with the analyses of admixture carried out by Hellenthal et al. based on autosomal markers. The second most important signal in our study would come from South Caucasus. Note that an origin in South Caucasus of the Near East component of Tuscans would also fit well with the findings observed in the genome-wide SNP analysis carried out by Pardo-Seco et al."
Another genetic study that also gives information on Etruscans among other ancient populations: A genetic atlas of human admixture history We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed by using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4000 years. Science, 2014 Feb 14. By Hellenthal, Busby, Band, Wilson, Capelli, Falush, Myers
Another study on Italian cattle provides even further evidence on the Anatolian origin of the Etruscans:
Mitochondrial DNA variants of Podolian cattle breeds testify for a dual maternal origin
From the paper written by Piera Di Lorenzo , Hovirag Lancioni , Simone Ceccobelli, Licia Colli, Irene Cardinali, Taki Karsli, Marco Rosario Capodiferro, Emine Sahin, Luca Ferretti, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Francesca Maria Sarti, Emiliano Lasagna, Francesco Panella, Alessandro Achilli
Published: February 20, 2018
Quote from the study: ".... In particular, a principal component analysis point to a genetic proximity between five breeds (Chianina, Marchigiana, Maremmana, Podolica Italiana and Romagnola) reared in Central Italy and the Turkish Grey. We here propose the suggestive hypothesis of a dual ancestral contribution to the present gene pool of Podolian breeds, one deriving from Eastern European cattle; the other arising from the arrival of Middle Eastern cattle into Central Italy through a different route, perhaps by sea, ferried by Etruscan boats..."
2018 Avars and Longobards genetic research discussions reveal additional info about the origins of the Etruscans even when the study was not aimed at the Etruscans, rather to the study of the migration of Longobards from Hungary to Italy. Especially the comments made by Samuel Andrews regarding Anatolian and Near East affinity of 3 samples from the early Medival cemetery near Turin, Italy as well blogger VesteinofVestfirtir's comment reminding Aeneid of Virgil and the Ab Urbe Condita of Livy's account regarding Trojan origin of the Etruscans. There is also another sample which is contaminated but reveals interesting info that may connect the sample to Anatolia and Central Asia (comment by blogger Open Genomes).2018 Major Mediterranean Bronze Age genetic study reconfirms this article and my book The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans, and Rome, study results below, only the abstract available for now:
Iran related ancestry from the Aegean in Sardinia by 2100–1500 BC (contemporary with Iran ancestry in Mycenaean Greece!), Iran+Steppe ancestry in Sicily since at least 3000 BC, and Steppe ancestry in Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Ibiza etc.), Spain! By Ron Pinhasi, Daniel Fernandes, David Reich abstract in Genes, Isotopes and Artefacts From the abstract:
"...the population movements that brought Iran-related ancestry to the Aegean also impacted the Western Mediterranean around the same time the first civilizations started to develop."
Etruscans were famed for their naval prowess!
2018 Another major genetics study: Population structure of modern-day Italians reveals patterns of ancient and archaic ancestries in Southern Europe by Alessandro Raveane et. al. provides even more genetic evidence:
"Italian genomes captured several ancient signatures, including a non-steppe related substantial ancestry contribution ultimately from the Caucasus."
"Iran Neolithic Ancestry in Europe only detected in Southern Italy." 2019
BREAKING NEWS March 21, 2019: Major genetics news from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles regarding the origin of Indo-European languages! The results shocked many Steppe Theory enthusiasts and others who blindly accepted established theories. It's now time to put Steppe Theory in a kurgan! Direct implications for the Origins of the Etruscans, Latins and Rome, too. Read more at: The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J.
MARCH 22, 2019, Two more papers on genetic history of Ancient Sicily and Sardinia! Population history from the Neolithic to present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia: An ancient DNA perspective and The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the Western Mediterranean
People with Iran - Turkey/Anatolia ancestry arrived in Sicily in around 1900 BC! Ancient genome samples were similar to Mycenaean Greece and Minoan Greece samples. Etruscans arrived in Italy during the Mycenaean period. I had already shown that Etruscans were part of the Mycenaeans and their first arrival to Italy is before the appearance of Etruria! In 1894, Paul Kretschmer has suggested an Etruscan substrate in Indo-European languages, and since then Etruscan / Tursenoi / Tyrrhennian was considered by a handful of European scholars as the pre-Greek substrate which constitute a large part of the Greek vocabulary. Congratulations to all European scholars in the last 140 years, including Italian linguists and scholars, who have offered evidence for the migration of the Etruscans from the Near East.
Below is a broad graphic representation of the confirmed Bronze Age migration history of Europe: (based on The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the Western Mediterranean, March 2019. ).
All genetics studies published in the last few years continue to offer further support to my research! See my map below from 2 years ago.
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Founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek Civilizations Migrated from Anatolia with some admixture from the Caucasus and Iran. Mycenaeans had additional 4-16% DNA from Siberia through Eastern Turkey (or Eastern Europe)!Main article: Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece
From the abstract:
"...Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran.
However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe or Armenia. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry.
Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations..." Read the original article from Nature or the Daily Mail article: Founders of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations migrated from Turkey!
The immediate result of this study is that the founders of the Minoan Greece were Hurrians probably mixed with the Hattis, since at that time period, 4000-5000 years ago, there were only two major civilizations in Turkey, and the very first major ones. There is a distinct possibility that Hurrians carried aspects of Sumerian civilization or Sumerians with them. (See Sumerian Migrations, Sumerian Original Homeland Central Asia, Ancestral Homeland Siberia, Ugur (Hurrian), and Implications for the Indo-European Homeland for more.)
The second result is that in addition to Hurrians and Hatti, Mycenaeans had DNA from Siberia which the paper says was introduced either from Armenia (Southern Caucasus) or the Eurasian Steppes. I can say that it was introduced through Southern Caucasia via the Turuk Kingdom in Eastern Turkey that centered around the Urumiye (Urmia) basin. See below.
Side Note: Moreover, the study mentions another research paper which suggests the arrival of people to Anatolia from the Caucuses and/or Iran around 3800 BC. I had already shown that these must be the Ugur Turks (Hurrians), same as the Sumerian people!
Considering this genetic study together with others including the above Etruscan genetic studies, we can decisively conclude that the founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek and the Etruscan civilizations migrated from Turkey! They also carried the Mesopotamian culture founded by the Sumerian Turks.
Genetic Studies done in 2016-2017 Prove the Existence of Massive Expansions out of Mesopotamia!Discussions regarding genetic research as of May 2017 DNA analysis in 2016 and 2017 has identified a massive expansion, or a series of expansions, from Mesopotamia and/or surrounding area.
There is no need for many different genetic studies to prove the Near Eastern origins of the Etruscans. One or two is enough because once you establish the existence of Near Eastern / West Asian haplogroups of 3000 years ago in today's Tuscans, then the result is final, since the ancestors of these people did not take a plane to arrive Italy! One needs to start explaining how these people migrated to Italy.
Reconfirming the results is important to assure the safety of the genetic tests. The only extra advantage one can get from extra genetic tests is the ability to accurately pinpoint the original land Etruscans migrated from and to get some extra clues on the routes they have taken to migrate from Turkey to Italy!
We can safely say that the year 2007 was crucial and the studies published in 2007 were covered by major newspapers in the West. See for example Etruscan Origins article in the Guardian among others.
The work since 2007 must have concentrated in this direction after completely dropping autochthonous lie. Unfortunately, this was not the case in the West.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)