By Mehmet Kurtkaya, First Published on November 28, 2017
MAIN ARTICLE Etruscan Origins
Languages Related to EtruscanEtruscan has been compared with varying degrees of success to: Turkish, Ogur Turkish, Ugric languages, Uralic and Altaic languages, Hurrian, Hungarian, Finnish, Anatolian Languages, Indo-European, Latin, Sanscrit, Greek, Albanian, Armenian, Celtic, Sumerian, Minoan, and Aegean languages.
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See the high concentration of languages in and around Turkey, but also note that there are other languages around Eurasia that Etruscan is related to. An East-West direction can clearly be seen, compatible with Eurasian migrations of the last 25000 years. See Eurasian Migrations and Languages: Indo-European origins, Sumer, Yamna, Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley .
Turkish Language Etruscan comparisonsThe Origins of the Etruscans written by Isaac Taylor in 1874. He had suggested them to be Turkic (Ugric, Uygur, Turanian).
The results of the automated generation of keywords for the topics in the book are as follows: Etruscan, Ugric, Turkic, Turanian, Latin, Finnic, Ugric Languages, Etruscan language, Turkic languages etc.
His findings were confirmed by Bernard Carra de Vaux La langue étrusque; sa place parmi les langues published in 1911 and La langue étrusque by Jules Martha in 1913. These authors had used Turkic, Finno-Turkish, Ugric and Turanian as attributes, instead of Ugur Turkish.
More books showing Turkish nature of the Etruscan civilization:
By Turkish scholar Adile Ayda Etrüskler Türk Mü idi Les Etrusques étaient-ils des Turcs? Etruscans were they Turkish? 1974 Les Étrusques Étaient des Turcs. Preuves. Ankara: 1985 Etrüskler (Tursakalar) Türk idiler. İlmî Deliller. Ankara: 1992.
1998 “ETRÜSKLER Tarihleri, Yazıları ve Dilleri” Kâzım MİRŞAN
Türkçedeki Eklerin Kökeni by the late Prof. Dr. Vecihe Hatiboğlu who is the only Turkish academic to have gone in the footsteps of Ataturk, has some important Turkish-Latin pronoun and affix comparisons (article in Turkish).
The Turkic Civilization lost in the Mediterranean basin by Azerbaijani professor Chingiz Garasharly in 2011.
A detailed linguistic treatise which includes: "The systematic coincidence of the Etruscan – Chuvash (Ugur, Oghur Turkish language) interdental th with the Turkic y in pre-position and t in postposition reveals that the Chuvash language has kept the initial forms of some proto – Turkic consonants and serves as a key for "many Etruscan words"."
Etrüsk Türk Bagi by Azerbaycani scholar Firudin Ağasıoglu published in 2013.
Gli etruschi erano turchi By Italian scholar Mario Alinei.
About the origin of Etruscans A significant number of names in Old Roman onomasticon are discovered to be Old Turkic lexicon. By S. I. Mammadova, 2016.
Tarkan - Tarchon - Tarquin - TarquiniusThe name Tarkan is a clear evidence of Anatolian origins of the Etruscans: the Stormgod Tarhun(t)-, the highest god of the Luwians and Hittites is clearly related. Beekes (see above) mentions that Etruscan Tarchon had the power to ward off lightnings and the Anatolian Tarhunt was the god of lightning!
Moreover it is also a proof of the Turkish nature of the Etruscans as Tarkan is found in the Turks from Siberia to Turkey and the Near East, and found among Turks, Hungarians and Etruscans. See Sumerian Hungarian linguistic and historic comparisons too.
Similarly, Sumerian word for god: Dingir (=Turkish Tengri) is a very strong indication that Sumerians were Turks because Tengriism (belief in Dingir/Tengri) is a Central Asian religion, only Turks, Mongols, Hungarians and Hun / Xiong-Nu Empire (predominantly Turkic, with Mongol participation) practice(d) in the entire history of mankind!
A Study of the Ancient Turkic Tarqan from Siberia, Central Asia, Mongolia. By Korean scholar Han-Woo Choi from Handong University.
Article mentioning Tarkan and Targitaio: According to Herodotus European Scythians named their primeval king Targitaos, (Turkish Targitay). By F. W. Thomas
Troy - TurogPeople of Troy were Turks (Troyalılar Türk İdiler), Elm ve tahsil, Baku, Azerbaycan 2013. Truvalılar ve Etrüskler Türk İdiler by Cingiz Garasarli
The Language of Troy was Etruscan by Alwin Kloekhorst.
Hittite Truisa and other words used for Troy such as Troie, Eturs, Turskia, and Tursenoi. He correctly remarks that the "e" preceding tr in Etrusci is a consonant cluster facilitator.
Tyrrhenian Languages (Tursenoi languages)Turhennoi is the original suggested name and Tursenoi is even better. But naming it Tyrrhenian only adds to the confusion as it obscures the root word Turs/Turogh whose original form was Tur, and then Turuk (Tur+ug/uk) and Turus (Tur+us).
Etruscan, Lemnian, Rhaethic and Camunic languages are grouped under the name Tyrsenian. Lemnian is Etruscan or a dialect of Etruscan, there is no doubt about it among scholars. Incidentally, Raeth and Ras as in Rasna which Etruscans called themselves are pretty close phonologically, and -na is a Hurrian suffix. Camunic is very close to Turkish ethnonym Kuman known to have ruled from the Caucuses to Hungary, though Kumans are recorded in history books a thousand years after the dissolution of the Etruscan civilization within the Roman Empire. and Kuman Turks are known from famed Polovec Dances part of the Prince Igor by Russian composer Alexander Borodin. However, Kuman / Quman and Kumanu / Qumanu were known since 1800BC in Southeast Turkey the original homeland of the Etruscans.
According to Alfred Toth, Tyrrhenian language family ”was already invented by Kretschmer (1943), where all important points of Helmut Rix’ theory can be found, but that Rix does not even quote Kretschmer’s work". Unfortunately, Alfred Toth does the same when he mentions Isaac Taylor's major 1874 work as supportive of Hungarian-Etruscan connection while the book lays out Turanian, Turkic, Ugric thesis. He does not mention it in his article.
Tyrsenian language family was found related to the Caucasian languages by Soviet linguists Sergei Starostin and Igor Dyakonoff.
British archaeologist James Mellaart is known to have connected Tyrrhenian to pre-Indo-European Anatolian languages, based upon place name analysis in The Neolithic of the Near East".
Let us also note that Raethic was suggested to be related to Illyrian and Celtic by Scullard in 1967 and Camunic to Celtic by Thomas Markey in 2008 in "Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe."
Anatolian Tyrrhenian Hurrian adjectives by Mary Bachvarova, 2006.
Hurrian (Ugur Turkish) and EtruscanEtruscan and Trysenian Languages : From a linguistic point of view Etruscan (and its close dialects Rhaetic and Camunic) is an evolved variety of Hurro-Urartian.
Aegean Language FamilyAn Aegean language family including Eteocretan, Minoan and Eteocypriot has been proposed by G. M. Facchetti.
Sumerian, Etruscan, Minoan Linear A and Minoan Linear BThe relation of Etruscan with ancient languages has been analyzed in many studies, among them Sumerian - Linear A - Etruscan - Linear B similarities and Sumerian - Linear A - Etruscan - Linear B - Lycian - Phaistos Disc - Cypro-Minoan similarities by Benon Zbigniew Szalek.
Etruscan-Minoan links in Facchetti, Giulio M. (2001). "Qualche osservazione sulla lingua minoica".
HungarianHungarian is the most related living language along with Turkish.
Etruscan and Paleolithic Continuity Theory: Linguistic study of Etruscan as a Uralic substrate with Türkic overlay by Italian linguist Mario Alinei.
Also see the important book summary: Etruscan: an archaic form of Hungarian by Mario Alinei.
M. Alinei, Etrusco: Una Forma Arcaica di Ungherese, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2003.
Magyar Etruscan Affiliations from a Magyar point of view by Susan Tomory The Etruscan Language by Fred Hamori
West UgricEstablishing the West-Ugric Language Family with Minoan, Hattic and Hungarian by a Decipherment of Linear A by Peter Z. Revesz Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
From the Abstract:" This paper develops a feature-based similarity measure to visually compare script symbols from different alphabets and syllabaries and then uses that similarity measure within a novel algorithm to develop a new phonetic grid for Linear A..."
"...Today ever fewer languages remain isolates as researchers with ever more sophisticated tools are able to find connections among languages that previously seemed unrelated."
This paper is amazing not only in its novel computational approach but correctly identifies Minoan Linear A as Ugric (my note: Ugur/Hurrian). In fact it reconfirms previous research that showed Minoan Linear A as Hurrian (Ugur) by Peter van Soesbergen and suggests Etruscan as West Ugric.
Ugric (Ugur) languages form the core of Uralic language group which should have been grouped together with the Indo-European and Altaic in the first place, the Ural-Altaic language family first proposed in the 19th century.
Caucasian, North Caucasian, Nakh-DaghestanianIgor Diokonov, Sergei Starostin suggested relationship between Hurro-Urartian and East Caucasian languages. Ancient East: ethno-cultural relations.Moscow, 1988 (in Russian).
Starostin, Sergei; Orel, Vladimir (1989). "Etruscan and North Caucasian". In Shevoroshkin, Vitaliy. Explorations in Language Macrofamilies. Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics.
Etruscan's Genealogical Relationship With Nakh-Daghestanian by Ed Robertson published in 2006.
Understanding Etruscan: A New Step by Wolodymyr H. Kozyrski1, Alexander V. Malovichko presenting evident lexical parallels in East Caucasian and Etruscan vocabularies.
On deciphering the name of the art of divination “Libri Haruspicini”: To the question of diachronic convergent relations in Etrusco-Adyghe languages West Circassian by Albek Ch. Abazov and Tamara M. Tanasheva from Kabardino-Balkarian State University Nalchik, Russia. The article is devoted to the reconstruction of Etrusco-Adyghe parallels based on the analysis of mythology and pantheon of gods (theonyms), which has not received sufficient light in science.
Anatolian LanguagesAnatolian Languages consist of Hittite, Luwian, Palaic, Lycian, Lydian, Carian, Pisidian, and Sidetic (Pamphylian).
More on Etruscan as an IE-Anatolian Language
Francisco R. Adrados Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 107. Bd., 1. H. (1994),
The Etruscan Language: An Anatolian language with an archaic morphology and a Semitic lexicon by Marco Carrara.
Two Areal Features in Anatolian Languages: The Sentential Particle Chain and Relational Adjective by Mary Bachvarova.
Anatolia and the Caucasus: the cradle of the Indo-Europeans by Dan Alexe.
Bronze Age Areal influence in Anatolia and Etruscan.
Etruscan Origins and Luwian by Fred C. Woudhuizen.
Dieter Steinbauer (1999, 356–86), offers etymological arguments for an Aegean connection in the form of Anatolian loanwords in Etruscan. via Penney.
An important paper by Martin Counihan An Etruscan Solution to a Celtic problem. From the paper: "It is argued that what used to be called "P-Celtic" arose because Etruscans could not pronounce properly the Indo-European languages which they encountered in and around Italy. Etruscan influence can neatly explain not only the phenomenon of P-Celtic but also the corresponding phonological transition in Oscan and Umbrian. This scenario tends to support a relatively short timescale for the dissemination and diversification of the Western Indo-European languages."
See also Irish people are descendants of Middle East Farmers Celtic DNA shows.
Indo-European, Latin, Greek, SanskritIndo-Hittite Tyrsenian Hurrian origin of Etruscan
Towards a Peri-Indo-European Interpretation of the Etruscan Language by Perrotin, Damien Erwan.
Etruscan declension patterns as they relate to Latin, Greek and Sanskrit Work notes on Etruscan Devotional Texts among the Celts and Etruscan Phrases by Mel Copeland. He also remarks that Etruscan influenced Latin and not the other way around.
ETRUSCAN AND PERI INDO-EUROPEAN HURRO-URARTIAN PARALLELS by Iurii Mosenkis
Etruscan as An Anatolian Language and Core Evidence for Etruscan as An Anatolian Language by Gianfranco Forni
Comparative Notes on Hurro-Urartian, Northern Caucasian and Indo-European by Vyacheslav V. Ivanov
Riccardo Massarelli's work on the Etruscan word Lautun Etruscan changed from agglutinative to fusional, inflectional language, he remarks.
Thalassa a Simple Etruscan Lemnian compound by Eduard Selleslagh-Suykens.
An expose on the Orientalist Thesis Etruscan Origins, Language and Archaelogy by Bouke Van Der Meer, 2004.
He suggests three waves of Etruscan colonization: first in 1100 BC, a second in 900 BC, and the third in 700 BC.
Etymology of the word Roma (Rome, Italy)Mapping the location of the city/region name Urum from China to Rome, Italy shows the itinerary of the Silk Road more than a thousand years before the first known trade routes!
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Etymology of the word EtruscanThe correct etymology of the word Etrusci / Etruscan can be found in my book: English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages
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