By Mehmet Kurtkaya, First Published on November 28, 2017, Updated on December 6, 2018
Latest additions: The genetic research published in 2018, comparing some Italian cattle breeds with Turkish cattle.
September 2018: Genetic study on samples from an early Medieval (Longobard, Lombard) Italian cemetery near Turin.
December 2018 Update: Major Mediterranean Bronze Age genetic study reconfirms this article and my book The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans, and Rome, which had shown Bronze Age Ugur Turkish (Turuk, Hurrian) migrations that later included Indo-Europeans (see Anatolian Indo-European characteristics of Etruscan) and Uguz Turks from Anatolia and Northern Syria, to Italy, Spain as well as Northern Africa.
Etruscans were known for their naval prowess!
For more, see Genetics section below:
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Etruscans: Who were they and where did they come from?
Sarcophage from an Etruscan Tomb
Info on additional archaeological, mythological, linguistic research can be found on my Etruscans' Journey from Turkey to Italy and their Origins in Southeastern Turkey, Northwestern Iran, Assyria and Mesopotamia article which should be evaluated together with this one for a complete analysis of the Etruscan origins and their journey to Italy.
The origin of the Etruscans has been one of history's most debated topics.
In 2018, the evidence proving the origins of Etruscans is overwhelming, to say the least. Based on existing research and adding my own insight and research, I can say that I have solved the so-called puzzle.
The three interrelated questions must be answered simultaneously: their identity, their original homeland and the path they have taken to reach Italy.
Analysis of all the existing information from different fields, archaeology, linguistics, genetics, and history -including social structure, arts and mythology- answers this question unambiguously.
In total, eight genetic studies done between 1998 and 2018, on modern Tuscans, ancient Tuscan remains and Tuscan cattle, confirmed that Etruscans migrated from Turkey. These results are scientific and final. In fact, genetic tests done between 2008 and 2017, have also proven that the founders of Ancient Greece had migrated from Turkey and that the Mycenaeans had some Siberian admixture too!
Migrations were key for the spread of ancient civilizations!
The genetic studies done in 2018, continue to "amaze" (or shame) many archaeologists, historians and linguists who simply followed main stream Western lies emanating from social fields departments of Harvard, Oxford including (history, anthropology, economics etc.):. See for example About 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)!
That's actually only one of the many migration waves to Britain from Eurasian steppes. An East-West direction can clearly be seen, compatible with Eurasian migrations of the last 25000 years. See Eurasian Migrations and Languages: Indo-European origins, Sumer, Yamna, Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley .
The genetic studies done between 1998 and 2018 reveal the region Etruscans migrated from with a reasonable degree of accuracy that fits most linguistic associations suggested since the first major book on Etruscan studies The Origins of the Etruscans was written by the English scholar Isaac Taylor, in 1874. He had suggested that the Etruscans were Turkic / Ugric / Uygur / Turanian:
His findings were confirmed by Bernard Carra de Vaux La langue étrusque; sa place parmi les langues published in 1911 and La langue étrusque by Jules Martha, in 1913. These authors had used Turkic, Finno-Turkish, Ugric and Turanian as attributes instead of Ugur (Oghur) Turkish.
On a blog post on Etruscan Origins some of the major points listed by French linguist Raymond Bloch in his 1954 book Les Étrusques which supports Asia Minor (Turkey) origins of the Etruscans, are as follows:
"Oriental characteristics of Etruscan civilization are too numerous and too imposing..."
"The types of evidence cited fall under the headings of:
- The position occupied by the woman among the Etruscans
- Artistic and religious fields
- Lack of archeological evolution (sudden appearance of advanced culture)"
Parallels between Sumerian and Etruscan studiesSumerian too was declared to be Turkish by English and European scholars including Edward Hincks who had deciphered cuneiform writing in the 1850s. See the History of Sumerian Turkish comparisons
And very interestingly, decades later, Etruscan was declared to be an isolated civilization with an isolated language just like the Sumerian, against all evidence pointing to the Turkish nature of their civilization.
(Click on the image for the answer)
Etruscan as part of Sumerian, Greek, Roman origins studyHistory is a whole and not a collection of isolated events and people. The whole can be constructed by not only analyzing its parts but also connecting them based on material evidence.
Sumerian and Ugur (Huur=Hurrians), are two of the most overlooked civilizations in history. See:
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome
Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece
Political Nature of the Etruscan Origins StudiesMany distinguished Italian scholars have indicated the political nature of Etruscan Origins discussions. They have also greatly contributed to the field of Etruscan research.
" I can never succeed in understanding why Italians still fail to recognize the enormous contribution that the Etruscan civilization has made to our Western civilization. We keep on believing the teaching that the Greeks and above all the Romans are the peoples to whom the Western world owes its origins. All of this is considerably exaggerated and based on historical falsehoods. However, I have ascertained instead that it is the Etruscans, coming from the East, who are the true founders of our European culture, for both good and bad aspects. "
Professor Graziano Baccolini, founder of mysteriousetruscans.com, a great website that must be consulted first to get an overview of this much neglected civilization.
A very important analysis On Etruscan Language written in 2013, by Italian linguistics Professor Massimo Pittau, author of "I Grandi Testi della Lingua Etrusca tradotti e commentati" (Sassari 2011), on Rina Brundu's website shows how Italian archaeologists have buried the truth Italian linguists had uncovered! There are many important remarks in this must-read article from Pittau.
There is also mention of important scholars including French Jean Berard and Jacques Heurgon in Massimo Pittau's article.
He shows how Herodotus' account on the Etruscans was supported by 30 others while Dionysius who is known to have disliked the Etruscans was the only dissenter! And that Italian archaelogists chose to accept Dionysius of Halicarnassus account over 30 others including that of Herodotus!
I should add that it is not only the Italian archaeologists who lied brazenly (or by omission) but also the majority of Western professors, including those who teach Classics at Oxford, Harvard etc.
It is obvious that Italian scholars have been much more truthful and curious about the origins of the Etruscans than the rest of the Western academics are about the origins of the Sumerians (for example see Oxford lies regarding Sumerian research, Case study: June 2017 twitter exchanges among many others).
Linguists in general have been much more correct and helpful than archaeologists regarding comparative analysis of civilizations -hence migrations and cultural interactions !
On the politics of Etruscan studies, Sabrina Loriga remarks: "From the Renaissance to the dawn of the twenty-first century, recurrent efforts have been made in the Italian Peninsula to erase or at least minimize the traces of the Etruscans’ relationship to the East. However, the question of their origin has been reworked and reshaped to various—and sometimes conflicting—political ends." See more at: Politics in Etruscan Studies in Italy
Etruscan vs. Roman civilizationsAccording to Pittau, there is still much work to be done in the field of comparative analysis of Etruscan-Roman and Etruscan-Greek civilizations, in both linguistic and cultural aspects.
Unfortunately, a remark in a 1996 book review Etruscan things are put down as a feeble Graeco-Roman imitation shows how.upside-down is Western take on history!
Roman civilization and Latin language is based on Etruscan and not the other way around!
And latest genetics research done in the last 10 years especially the research in 2016, and 2017 proved that the founders of Greek civilization migrated from Turkey (Anatolia), the very same land Etruscans migrated from ! I had already suggested this in my Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece article long before that genetic study done on ancient grave remains was published! See Ugur / Hurrians, founders of Ancient Greece
Mythology including god names like Aplu, Aeneas myth, Haruspicy, Augury, Lemnos Stele, the funerary stela of Tarhunpiyas, Subria and More
Augur and Bird AuguryAugury was introduced to Rome by the Etruscans and was part of the Roman religious and political scene.
Augury, reading omens based on bird flight paths, is of Northern Mesopotamian and Anatolian origin. It is known from the Hittite records of the 14th century BC but like most of the other Hittite religious practices, mythology and culture, it is of Ugur (Hurrian) origin.
In fact, it is well known that the first major civilizations of Turkey, Ugat (Hatti) and Ugur (Hurrian) were respectively at least 1000 and 2000 years older than the much more popular Hittite Empire.
Moreover, a large section if not the majority of the population of the Hittite Empire and its vassal states consisted of Ugur (Hurrian) and Hatti (Ugat) people. Hittites called themselves "the people of the land of the Hatti", and not Hittite! The rulers of the Hittite Empire mostly considered as migrants, but probably local or mixed with locals, largely considered as the first "Indo-Europeans" on written record (Anitta text, 1650 BC), adopted the culture of the people they ruled over.
Hurrians were contemporaneous with both the Hittite and the earlier Sumerian civilizations! Geographically they were located in between Sumer and Hittite lands. Hence, the relationship between the first Indo-European language, Hittite, and Sumerian language is not unexpected.
The word for "water" in Hittite language is "watar", almost same as in English! If interested, here's the proof how the word water derives from Sumerian Turkish.
This article on augury and divination practices casually states that augury spread from Anatolia / Northern Mesopotamia to Ancient Greece and Rome without giving any explanation on how that happened.
Academics speak of Hurrian art of augury.
Huur (Hurrian) = Ugur/Augur, as in Oghur (Oğur) Turks, Ugric languages etc, hence the use of the word Augury is self evident with regards to Hurrian culture. Ugur is also seen among the Turuk personal names of 3800 years ago in Assyrian records regarding Turuk /Turukkaeans and, also as the Mesopotamian god found also in ancient Hayasa, U.Gur associated with Nergal.
Learn more about this artwork from Louvre Museum's page: The funerary stela of Tarhunpiyas, from the Kingdom of Gurgum, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
This stele is very significant in many ways in determining the origins of the Etruscans. Bigger Image
As explained by Karen Radner it depicts augury in Southeastern Turkey.
Stone funerary steles are of Turkish origin and can be found all over the Eurasian steppes, especially in kurgans (tumulus) from Siberia to Eastern Europe. The earliest known balbal, Turkish word for the Eurasian funerary stele, is dated to 3000 BC and was found in Ukraine. Etruscans had tumulus/kurgan tombs in addition to other type of tombs. Kurgans are Turkish cimetery mounds and the word Kurgan is Turkish and has both Turkish and Sumerian Turkish etymology. Latin word "tumulus" too, has Turkish etymology.
Turkish balbal from Central Asia
The word "bal" also exists in Sumerian and it means "a type of stone". Balbal is a word duplication, a feature found in both Turkish and Sumerian Turkish languages.
Morever, Hurrian (and Hittite/Luwian) god Tarhun (Tessub/Teşub) and Etruscan Tarkan connection is well known as an important evidence of the Etruscan-Anatolian connection.
Let us note that Hurrians (Ugur) were a large population, living predominantly in Eastern, Central and Southern Turkey but also in Western Turkey at later dates. They also populated parts of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon. (See below how well the genetic signature of some modern Tuscans fit Ugur Turks / Hurrians below).
Gurgum kingdom, home to the funerary stela of Tarhunpiyas, was located in Kizzuwadna, another Hurrian kingdom to the east of Subria, closer to Lydia where Etruscans migrated from.
Subria, an ancient mountain kingdom in Southeast Turkey known from 9-6th century BC Assyrian records, was a refugee sanctuary located between the Assyrian Kingdom to its South and Urartu Kingdom to its north. Subria was contemporary with the early Etruscan civilization!
And even more interestingly, two genetic research studies done on Tuscan populations in 2014 and 2015 point to Southeastern Turkey /Northwestern Iran / Northern Syria and Iraq where Turuk kingdoms are known to have existed since at least 2400 BC and even more precisely to the area in Southern Caucuses / Lake Urmia near Kumme and nearby Ukku (modern Hakkari).
Another interesting info from Louvre's website: it can be related to the wooden stools covered in metal of similar date, discovered at Gordion in Phrygia. Consider this together with the Etruscan - Phyrigia connection as explained by Beekes, who had made some mistakes but overall has very important remarks.
Subria was Hurrian and westward from the center of the Turuk kingdoms in the Taurus and Zagros mountains. The lands of Subria, in all likelihood hosted a Turuk kingdom and/or Turuk people in the past or was itself a Turuk kingdom.
German professor Karen Radner's work on Subria (Subir in Sumerian, Subartu in Akkadian/Sumerian. Note Sumer/Subir similarity) provides some important information among them this very revealing line:
"I a[sk]ed the [Subria]n: Why do you seize deserters [f]rom the Urartian (king) fleeing to Assyria, and [settle them in] the city? Why do you [protect dese]rters and not give them to us?" His reply: "I fear the gods"." (SAA 5 35)"
The people living in Subria risked their lives to protect refugees because they feared the gods!
Etruscans were very religious people, in many cases, their tombs had more luxury than their homes. Moreover -UM is a suffix meaning afterlife. (Side note: If used as a prefix, instead of a suffix, replacing SU in Subria we get Umbria. Subria > Umbria. Hurrian mythological word Umbu may have been related to Umbria such as Umbu+ur+ia = Umburia. Italian Umbria may have Near Eastern roots as well).
See also: Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Musasir, Kumme, Ukku (Mmodern Hakkari) and Subria - The Buffer States Between Assyria and Urartu / And the Related Map showing Subria, Ukku, Kumme, Musasir
The etymology of the word Augur, the practice of Augury as well as haruspicy, divination based on sacrificed animal's liver, gladiator fights, mythology and many more in: Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome. Also see Huur misrepresented Ugur (Later known as Oghur Turks) for how Augur and Ugur (Hurrian) are the same word and people.
Haruspicy / HepatoscopyTurkey-Mesopotamia - Greece-Italy Haruspicy transmission info: Transmission of liver divination from East to West
Haruspicy from the Ancient Near East to Etruria
Aeneas myth, Etruscan mythology and moreAeneas: An Etruscan Foundation Legend by Peter Mountford (University of Melbourne). He identifies seventy vases which show the Aeneas/Anchises in Etruria and concludes that Aeneas was the subject of a foundation myth in southern Etruria in the late sixth century B.C. He suggests a case can now be made for the movement of peoples in Asia Minor (Turkey) to Italy in the late Mycenaean Age.
In addition to many scholars before him in the last 125 years, Robert Stephen Paul Beekes' The Origins of the Etruscans (2003) supported the migration out of Anatolia (Turkey) thesis.. R.S.P. Beekes has some very important remarks among them:
"- the Greeks called the Etruscans Tyrsenoi (Tursenoi), a name they also used for people in the north-west of Asia Minor (Turkey).
- The story that the Etruscans were Pelasgians and the story of Nanas as the leader of the Etruscans coming from Greece.
- The triumphus complex.
- The Kumdanli inscription near Lake Burdur.
- The use of the name Taruisas instead of Ilios for Troy.
- The evidence that the story of Aeneas in Italy was preceded by a version where the journey from Troy went to Etruria."
Read Beekes' important work at: The Origins of the Etruscans (The article has some mistakes too, but they do not affect the major points he made.)
Consider Aeneas myth together with the archaeological Aeneas evidence above.
Also see Minoan and Etruscan Hydro Technologies by Anastasia Zourou.
There is a lot more to add to the mythological correspondences between Anatolia / Mesopotamia and Etruscan such as major Etruscan gods Tinia, Uni, Etruscan word for god Ais and Aiser, Mars, Apollo and others.
Linguistic Associations: Competing OR Complementing Suggestions ?There are different types of relations between languages: Areal contacts, genetical relationship, and other influences.
To solve a high school algebra question such as the one below, involving three unknowns, one must use all the equations simultaneously.
x+2y+4z = 17
5x+3y+z = 14
It is impossible to solve them one by one.
Another analogy would be the proverbial description of the elephant by blinds, each making a conclusion based on the part of the elephant.
The question to be answered: Who is the elephant in the room?
Languages Related to EtruscanEtruscan has been compared with varying degrees of success to: Turkish, Ogur Turkish, Ugric languages, Uralic and Altaic languages, Hurrian, Hungarian, Finnish, Anatolian Languages, Indo-European, Latin, Sanscrit, Greek, Albanian, Armenian, Celtic, Sumerian, Minoan, and Aegean languages.
(Click on the image to see it bigger)
See the high concentration of languages in and around Turkey, but also note that there are other languages around Eurasia that Etruscan is related to. An East-West direction can clearly be seen, compatible with Eurasian migrations of the last 25000 years. See Eurasian Migrations and Languages: Indo-European origins, Sumer, Yamna, Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley .
Turkish Language Etruscan comparisonsThe Origins of the Etruscans written by Isaac Taylor in 1874. He had suggested them to be Turkic (Ugric, Uygur, Turanian).
The results of the automated generation of keywords for the topics in the book are as follows: Etruscan, Ugric, Turkic, Turanian, Latin, Finnic, Ugric Languages, Etruscan language, Turkic languages etc.
His findings were confirmed by Bernard Carra de Vaux La langue étrusque; sa place parmi les langues published in 1911 and La langue étrusque by Jules Martha in 1913. These authors had used Turkic, Finno-Turkish, Ugric and Turanian as attributes, instead of Ugur Turkish.
More books showing Turkish nature of the Etruscan civilization:
By Turkish scholar Adile Ayda Etrüskler Türk Mü idi Les Etrusques étaient-ils des Turcs? Etruscans were they Turkish? 1974 Les Étrusques Étaient des Turcs. Preuves. Ankara: 1985 Etrüskler (Tursakalar) Türk idiler. İlmî Deliller. Ankara: 1992.
1998 “ETRÜSKLER Tarihleri, Yazıları ve Dilleri” Kâzım MİRŞAN
Türkçedeki Eklerin Kökeni by the late Prof. Dr. Vecihe Hatiboğlu who is the only Turkish academic to have gone in the footsteps of Ataturk, has some important Turkish-Latin pronoun and affix comparisons (article in Turkish).
The Turkic Civilization lost in the Mediterranean basin by Azerbaijani professor Chingiz Garasharly in 2011.
A detailed linguistic treatise which includes: "The systematic coincidence of the Etruscan – Chuvash (Ugur, Oghur Turkish language) interdental th with the Turkic y in pre-position and t in postposition reveals that the Chuvash language has kept the initial forms of some proto – Turkic consonants and serves as a key for "many Etruscan words"."
Etrüsk Türk Bagi by Azerbaycani scholar Firudin Ağasıoglu published in 2013.
About the origin of Etruscans A significant number of names in Old Roman onomasticon are discovered to be Old Turkic lexicon. By S. I. Mammadova, 2016.
Tarkan - Tarchon - Tarquin - TarquiniusThe name Tarkan is a clear evidence of Anatolian origins of the Etruscans: the Stormgod Tarhun(t)-, the highest god of the Luwians and Hittites is clearly related. Beekes (see above) mentions that Etruscan Tarchon had the power to ward off lightnings and the Anatolian Tarhunt was the god of lightning!
Moreover it is also a proof of the Turkish nature of the Etruscans as Tarkan is found in the Turks from Siberia to Turkey and the Near East, and found among Turks, Hungarians and Etruscans. See Sumerian Hungarian linguistic and historic comparisons too.
Similarly, Sumerian word for god: Dingir (=Turkish Tengri) is a very strong indication that Sumerians were Turks because Tengriism (belief in Dingir/Tengri) is a Central Asian religion, only Turks, Mongols, Hungarians and Hun / Xiong-Nu Empire (predominantly Turkic, with Mongol participation) practice(d) in the entire history of mankind!
A Study of the Ancient Turkic Tarqan from Siberia, Central Asia, Mongolia. By Korean scholar Han-Woo Choi from Handong University.
Article mentioning Tarkan and Targitaio: According to Herodotus European Scythians named their primeval king Targitaos, (Turkish Targitay). By F. W. Thomas
Troy - TurogPeople of Troy were Turks (Troyalılar Türk İdiler), Elm ve tahsil, Baku, Azerbaycan 2013. Truvalılar ve Etrüskler Türk İdiler by Cingiz Garasarli
The Language of Troy was Etruscan by Alwin Kloekhorst.
Hittite Truisa and other words used for Troy such as Troie, Eturs, Turskia, and Tursenoi. He correctly remarks that the "e" preceding tr in Etrusci is a consonant cluster facilitator.
Tyrrhenian Languages (Tursenoi languages)Turhennoi is the original suggested name and Tursenoi is even better. But naming it Tyrrhenian only adds to the confusion as it obscures the root word Turs/Turogh whose original form was Tur, and then Turuk (Tur+ug/uk) and Turus (Tur+us).
Etruscan, Lemnian, Rhaethic and Camunic languages are grouped under the name Tyrsenian. Lemnian is Etruscan or a dialect of Etruscan, there is no doubt about it among scholars. Incidentally, Raeth and Ras as in Rasna which Etruscans called themselves are pretty close phonologically, and -na is a Hurrian suffix. Camunic is very close to Turkish ethnonym Kuman known to have ruled from the Caucuses to Hungary, though Kumans are recorded in history books a thousand years after the dissolution of the Etruscan civilization within the Roman Empire. and Kuman Turks are known from famed Polovec Dances part of the Prince Igor by Russian composer Alexander Borodin. However, Kuman / Quman and Kumanu / Qumanu were known since 1800BC in Southeast Turkey the original homeland of the Etruscans.
According to Alfred Toth, Tyrrhenian language family ”was already invented by Kretschmer (1943), where all important points of Helmut Rix’ theory can be found, but that Rix does not even quote Kretschmer’s work". Unfortunately, Alfred Toth does the same when he mentions Isaac Taylor's major 1874 work as supportive of Hungarian-Etruscan connection while the book lays out Turanian, Turkic, Ugric thesis. He does not mention it in his article.
Tyrsenian language family was found related to the Caucasian languages by Soviet linguists Sergei Starostin and Igor Dyakonoff.
British archaeologist James Mellaart is known to have connected Tyrrhenian to pre-Indo-European Anatolian languages, based upon place name analysis in The Neolithic of the Near East".
Let us also note that Raethic was suggested to be related to Illyrian and Celtic by Scullard in 1967 and Camunic to Celtic by Thomas Markey in 2008 in "Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe."
Anatolian Tyrrhenian Hurrian adjectives by Mary Bachvarova, 2006.
Hurrian (Ugur Turkish) and EtruscanEtruscan and Trysenian Languages : From a linguistic point of view Etruscan (and its close dialects Rhaetic and Camunic) is an evolved variety of Hurro-Urartian.
Aegean Language FamilyAn Aegean language family including Eteocretan, Minoan and Eteocypriot has been proposed by G. M. Facchetti.
Sumerian, Etruscan, Minoan Linear A and Minoan Linear BThe relation of Etruscan with ancient languages has been analyzed in many studies, among them Sumerian - Linear A - Etruscan - Linear B similarities and Sumerian - Linear A - Etruscan - Linear B - Lycian - Phaistos Disc - Cypro-Minoan similarities by Benon Zbigniew Szalek.
Etruscan-Minoan links in Facchetti, Giulio M. (2001). "Qualche osservazione sulla lingua minoica".
HungarianHungarian is the most related living language along with Turkish.
Etruscan and Paleolithic Continuity Theory: Linguistic study of Etruscan as a Uralic substrate with Türkic overlay by Italian linguist Mario Alinei.
Also see the important book summary: Etruscan: an archaic form of Hungarian by Mario Alinei.
M. Alinei, Etrusco: Una Forma Arcaica di Ungherese, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2003.
Magyar Etruscan Affiliations from a Magyar point of view by Susan Tomory The Etruscan Language by Fred Hamori
West UgricEstablishing the West-Ugric Language Family with Minoan, Hattic and Hungarian by a Decipherment of Linear A by Peter Z. Revesz Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
From the Abstract:" This paper develops a feature-based similarity measure to visually compare script symbols from different alphabets and syllabaries and then uses that similarity measure within a novel algorithm to develop a new phonetic grid for Linear A..."
"...Today ever fewer languages remain isolates as researchers with ever more sophisticated tools are able to find connections among languages that previously seemed unrelated."
This paper is amazing not only in its novel computational approach but correctly identifies Minoan Linear A as Ugric (my note: Ugur/Hurrian). In fact it reconfirms previous research that showed Minoan Linear A as Hurrian (Ugur) by Peter van Soesbergen and suggests Etruscan as West Ugric.
Ugric (Ugur) languages form the core of Uralic language group which should have been grouped together with the Indo-European and Altaic in the first place, the Ural-Altaic language family first proposed in the 19th century.
Caucasian, North Caucasian, Nakh-DaghestanianIgor Diokonov, Sergei Starostin suggested relationship between Hurro-Urartian and East Caucasian languages. Ancient East: ethno-cultural relations.Moscow, 1988 (in Russian).
Starostin, Sergei; Orel, Vladimir (1989). "Etruscan and North Caucasian". In Shevoroshkin, Vitaliy. Explorations in Language Macrofamilies. Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics.
Etruscan's Genealogical Relationship With Nakh-Daghestanian by Ed Robertson published in 2006.
Understanding Etruscan: A New Step by Wolodymyr H. Kozyrski1, Alexander V. Malovichko presenting evident lexical parallels in East Caucasian and Etruscan vocabularies.
On deciphering the name of the art of divination “Libri Haruspicini”: To the question of diachronic convergent relations in Etrusco-Adyghe languages West Circassian by Albek Ch. Abazov and Tamara M. Tanasheva from Kabardino-Balkarian State University Nalchik, Russia. The article is devoted to the reconstruction of Etrusco-Adyghe parallels based on the analysis of mythology and pantheon of gods (theonyms), which has not received sufficient light in science.
Anatolian LanguagesAnatolian Languages consist of Hittite, Luwian, Palaic, Lycian, Lydian, Carian, Pisidian, and Sidetic (Pamphylian).
More on Etruscan as an IE-Anatolian Language
Francisco R. Adrados Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 107. Bd., 1. H. (1994),
The Etruscan Language: An Anatolian language with an archaic morphology and a Semitic lexicon by Marco Carrara.
Two Areal Features in Anatolian Languages: The Sentential Particle Chain and Relational Adjective by Mary Bachvarova.
Anatolia and the Caucasus: the cradle of the Indo-Europeans by Dan Alexe.
Bronze Age Areal influence in Anatolia and Etruscan.
Etruscan Origins and Luwian by Fred C. Woudhuizen.
Dieter Steinbauer (1999, 356–86), offers etymological arguments for an Aegean connection in the form of Anatolian loanwords in Etruscan. via Penney.
An important paper by Martin Counihan An Etruscan Solution to a Celtic problem. From the paper: "It is argued that what used to be called "P-Celtic" arose because Etruscans could not pronounce properly the Indo-European languages which they encountered in and around Italy. Etruscan influence can neatly explain not only the phenomenon of P-Celtic but also the corresponding phonological transition in Oscan and Umbrian. This scenario tends to support a relatively short timescale for the dissemination and diversification of the Western Indo-European languages."
See also Irish people are descendants of Middle East Farmers Celtic DNA shows.
Indo-European, Latin, Greek, SanskritIndo-Hittite Tyrsenian Hurrian origin of Etruscan
Towards a Peri-Indo-European Interpretation of the Etruscan Language by Perrotin, Damien Erwan.
Etruscan declension patterns as they relate to Latin, Greek and Sanskrit Work notes on Etruscan Devotional Texts among the Celts and Etruscan Phrases by Mel Copeland. He also remarks that Etruscan influenced Latin and not the other way around.
ETRUSCAN AND PERI INDO-EUROPEAN HURRO-URARTIAN PARALLELS by Iurii Mosenkis
Etruscan as An Anatolian Language and Core Evidence for Etruscan as An Anatolian Language by Gianfranco Forni
Comparative Notes on Hurro-Urartian, Northern Caucasian and Indo-European by Vyacheslav V. Ivanov
Riccardo Massarelli's work on the Etruscan word Lautun Etruscan changed from agglutinative to fusional, inflectional language, he remarks.
Thalassa a Simple Etruscan Lemnian compound by Eduard Selleslagh-Suykens.
An expose on the Orientalist Thesis Etruscan Origins, Language and Archaelogy by Bouke Van Der Meer, 2004.
He suggests three waves of Etruscan colonization: first in 1100 BC, a second in 900 BC, and the third in 700 BC.
ALL THE GENETIC STUDIES DONE IN THE LAST 20 YEARS TO DETERMINE THE ORIGINS OF THE ETRUSCAN PEOPLE
First of all, let's look at the only study claiming to support Indigenous "thesis" (lie)Genetic Study on MtDNA Samples from Etruscan Tombs published in 2013.
Unfortunately, this study is misused by the Wikipedia editors as proof of autochthonous "thesis" (lie). There are no links in Wikipedia to most other genetic studies I list below! That's a typical lying by omission tactic frequently used by Wikipedia and Western academics, in Sumerian articles too!
The study done on the samples from the graves suggests that the people whose remains were analyzed in the study might have migrated from Anatolia 5000 years ago at the latest, so they were not the migrant Etruscans.
It is genetically proven that all the early farmers of Europe had migrated from Anatolia! So this study showed that these people were locals who might have arrived with the previous migration wave from Anatolia and not with the Etruscan wave.
Nobody claims that when Etruscans migrated to Italy from Turkey, the land was not already inhabited. To the contrary, anyone with critical thinking skills and some knowledge on the matter says that Etruscans had migrated to a region where there were locals and they mixed with them, and in time, they enlarged their area of influence over Italy and parts of Central Europe to the North. Just like the migrant Sumerians and the local hunter gatherer people, Akkadians, some three thousand years before them! Migrant Sumerians had welcomed local Afroasiatic people, "Akkadians" into their own society.
Hence, finding local people remains in graves never proves that Etruscan culture was autochthonous! On the other hand, finding Near Eastern Anatolian DNA from the period of the migration, from around 1000 BC, in local Tuscans and local cattle proves beyond any doubt that the Etruscans had migrated from Turkey to Italy with their cattle, probably on ship out of Troy, and/or Symirna or anywhere in the Aegean coast of Turkey. It is also probable that some Etruscan migration waves took place by land, via the Balkans.
(More criticism about this study: the authors did not identify haplogroups for these ancient remains Additional testing of the coding region and re-testing of the control region are necessary to fully evaluate the ancient Etruscan samples in the context of ancient and modern populations)
Genetic study after genetic study proved beyond any doubt that 8-25% of current Tuscan population is of East Anatolian origin, and are descendants of the people who migrated from Turkey some 3000 years ago!
In fact even the original homeland of the Etruscans can be derived from the genetic studies: an area that covers parts of Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Southern Caucuses and Syria.
Genetic Studies Proving Southeastern Turkey, Northern Iraq, Syria, Iran as the Original homeland of the EtruscansNow, let's see ALL the genetic studies done between 1996 and 2018 that prove this fact (what you cannot find in Wikipedia due to censorship!)
First, let's look at the latest and most precise results on the map: The 2014 study and the 2015 study .
Note that while the latest genetic studies done in 2014 and 2015 prove the original homeland to be around Southeastern Turkey, the 2007 study showed relationship of the Tuscans with the people around Smryna / Izmir not far from Troy, Turkey. This is to be expected as the Turuk / Etruscan migrated from Eastern Turkey to Western Turkey before sailing towards Italy.
1996 The first genetic study suggesting Near Eastern origins of the Etruscans: Sequence diversity of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany and its implications for the peopling of Europe. Finding: "The pattern of mitochondrial variation in Tuscany indicates the persistence of an ancient European component subsequently enriched by migrational waves, possibly from the Middle East."
2004 The second important genetic study done on Etruscan remains from museums in Italy, supporting Oriental Thesis The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study. In Russian scientist Anatole Klyosov's great website on Turkic history Etruscan Genetics
2007 This was the year to safely declare
Etruscan civilization as of Anatolian (Turkey) origin.
"The shortest genetic distances between the Etruscan and modern populations are with Tuscans (FST=0.036; P=.0017) and Turks (FST=0.037; P=.0001)"
Mitochondrial DNA Variation of Modern Tuscans Supports the Near Eastern Origin of Etruscans Achilli, Piazza et. al. That same year, in 2007, Marco Pellecchia showed that DNA from Etruscan cattle was identical to that of cattle in Anatolia. and that these cattle must have reached Italy by sea. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus (cattle) mitochondrial DNA From the study:
"The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support."
2008 The Etruscan timeline: a recent Anatolian connection by
Francesca Brisighelli et al:
We found novel genetic evidences on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) establishing a genetic link between Anatolia and the ancient Etruria. By way of complete mtDNA genome sequencing of a novel autochthonous Tuscan branch of haplogroup U7 (namely U7a2a), we have estimated an historical time frame for the arrival of Anatolian lineages to Tuscany ranging from 1.1±0.1 to 2.3±0.4 kya B.P.
Compatible with the Etrurian culture (9th–1st century BC).
The typical Near Eastern U7 haplogroup occurs at relatively high frequency in the Elba Island.
2014 From the study:
"A genome-wide study of modern-day Tuscans: revisiting Herodotus's theory on the origin of the Etruscans by Pardo-Seco et al.
Some of their major findings: Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25-34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans and Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans."
The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600-3,100 years ago. On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. SEE THE RESULTS ON MAP
A very important genetic research work and analysis
DNA Study proves Near East as the original
homeland of the Etruscans
From the paper written by Alberto Gómez-Carballa , Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Jorge Amigo, Federico Martinón-Torres, Antonio Salas and published:
"Within the Near East, the main genetic signature comes from Iran, although this view could be distorted by an overrepresentation of this region in the database of mitogenomes from the Near East. The genetic link between Tuscans and other Near East populations (e.j. Syria, Armenia) is in good agreement with the analyses of admixture carried out by Hellenthal et al. based on autosomal markers. The second most important signal in our study would come from South Caucasus. Note that an origin in South Caucasus of the Near East component of Tuscans would also fit well with the findings observed in the genome-wide SNP analysis carried out by Pardo-Seco et al."
Another genetic study that also gives information on Etruscans among other ancient populations: A genetic atlas of human admixture history We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed by using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4000 years. Science, 2014 Feb 14. By Hellenthal, Busby, Band, Wilson, Capelli, Falush, Myers
Another study on Italian cattle provides even further evidence on the Anatolian origin of the Etruscans:
Mitochondrial DNA variants of Podolian cattle breeds testify for a dual maternal origin
From the paper written by Piera Di Lorenzo , Hovirag Lancioni , Simone Ceccobelli, Licia Colli, Irene Cardinali, Taki Karsli, Marco Rosario Capodiferro, Emine Sahin, Luca Ferretti, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Francesca Maria Sarti, Emiliano Lasagna, Francesco Panella, Alessandro Achilli
Published: February 20, 2018
Quote from the study: ".... In particular, a principal component analysis point to a genetic proximity between five breeds (Chianina, Marchigiana, Maremmana, Podolica Italiana and Romagnola) reared in Central Italy and the Turkish Grey. We here propose the suggestive hypothesis of a dual ancestral contribution to the present gene pool of Podolian breeds, one deriving from Eastern European cattle; the other arising from the arrival of Middle Eastern cattle into Central Italy through a different route, perhaps by sea, ferried by Etruscan boats..."
2018 Avars and Longobards genetic research discussions reveal additional info about the origins of the Etruscans even when the study was not aimed at the Etruscans, rather to the study of the migration of Longobards from Hungary to Italy. Especially the comments made by Samuel Andrews regarding Anatolian and Near East affinity of 3 samples from the early Medival cemetery near Turin, Italy as well blogger VesteinofVestfirtir's comment reminding Aeneid of Virgil and the Ab Urbe Condita of Livy's account regarding Trojan origin of the Etruscans. There is also another sample which is contaminated but reveals interesting info that may connect the sample to Anatolia and Central Asia (comment by blogger Open Genomes).2018 Major Mediterranean Bronze Age genetic study reconfirms this article and my book The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans, and Rome, study results below, only the abstract available for now:
Iran related ancestry from the Aegean in Sardinia by 2100–1500 BC (contemporary with Iran ancestry in Mycenaean Greece!), Iran+Steppe ancestry in Sicily since at least 3000 BC, and Steppe ancestry in Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Ibiza etc.), Spain! By Ron Pinhasi, Daniel Fernandes, David Reich abstract in Genes, Isotopes and Artefacts From the abstract:
"...the population movements that brought Iran-related ancestry to the Aegean also impacted the Western Mediterranean around the same time the first civilizations started to develop."
Etruscans were famed for their naval prowess!
Founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek Civilizations Migrated from Anatolia with some admixture from the Caucasus and Iran. Mycenaeans had additional 4-16% DNA from Siberia through Eastern Turkey (or Eastern Europe)!Main article: Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece
From the abstract:
"...Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran.
However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe or Armenia. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry.
Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations..." Read the original article from Nature or the Daily Mail article: Founders of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations migrated from Turkey!
The immediate result of this study is that the founders of the Minoan Greece were Hurrians probably mixed with the Hattis, since at that time period, 4000-5000 years ago, there were only two major civilizations in Turkey, and the very first major ones. There is a distinct possibility that Hurrians carried aspects of Sumerian civilization or Sumerians with them. (See Sumerian Migrations, Sumerian Original Homeland Central Asia, Ancestral Homeland Siberia, Ugur (Hurrian), and Implications for the Indo-European Homeland for more.)
The second result is that in addition to Hurrians and Hatti, Mycenaeans had DNA from Siberia which the paper says was introduced either from Armenia (Southern Caucasus) or the Eurasian Steppes. I can say that it was introduced through Southern Caucasia via the Turuk Kingdom in Eastern Turkey that centered around the Urumiye (Urmia) basin. See below.
Side Note: Moreover, the study mentions another research paper which suggests the arrival of people to Anatolia from the Caucuses and/or Iran around 3800 BC. I had already shown that these must be the Ugur Turks (Hurrians), same as the Sumerian people!
Considering this genetic study together with others including the above Etruscan genetic studies, we can decisively conclude that the founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek and the Etruscan civilizations migrated from Turkey! They also carried the Mesopotamian culture founded by the Sumerian Turks.
Genetic Studies done in 2016-2017 Prove the Existence of Massive Expansions out of Mesopotamia!Discussions regarding genetic research as of May 2017 DNA analysis in 2016 and 2017 has identified a massive expansion, or a series of expansions, from Mesopotamia and/or surrounding area.
There is no need for many different genetic studies to prove the Near Eastern origins of the Etruscans. One or two is enough because once you establish the existence of Near Eastern / West Asian haplogroups of 3000 years ago in today's Tuscans, then the result is final, since the ancestors of these people did not take a plane to arrive Italy! One needs to start explaining how these people migrated to Italy.
Reconfirming the results is important to assure the safety of the genetic tests. The only extra advantage one can get from extra genetic tests is the ability to accurately pinpoint the original land Etruscans migrated from and to get some extra clues on the routes they have taken to migrate from Turkey to Italy!
We can safely say that the year 2007 was crucial and the studies published in 2007 were covered by major newspapers in the West. See for example Etruscan Origins article in the Guardian among others.
The work since 2007 must have concentrated in this direction after completely dropping autochthonous lie. Unfortunately, this was not the case in the West.
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God, People, King Names: TUR and TAR, and their derivatives TURUS/TURS, TUROG, TURUK, TIR, TER, TR-, DR-A user by the name Adyghe Chabadi cites some of the ancient ethnonyms and suggests a root word:
Tyrsenoi, Turrhenioi (Attic Greek), Tursenoi (Ionic), Tursanoi (Doric), Tyrrheni (Latin), Tusci (Latin), *Tursci > Turskum (Umbrian), Etrusci (Latin) and Tursis (Greek) > Turris (Latin), Tyrannos (Greek), tyrannus (Latin), Turan (Etruscan goddess) are related then an Eastern identification can be educatedly set forward. The hypothetical root word is *turs-."
An important comment but it needs some small corrections and major additions. The root word one should actually look for is Tur(u). But later on it became Turuk and Tur(u)s.
Etruscan an Evidence of the Ethnic Name is a short but a very important historical linguistics work by Iurii Mosenkis. He shows that Tyrrenians are of Hurro- Urartian origin. Included links to Iberian peninsula, Balearic Islands, as well as mention of the Russian linguist Nicholas Yakovlevich Marr's suggestion that the Etruscans migrated from the Van lake area (Eastern Turkey) via Lydia (Western Turkey) on the Aegean sea to Italy.
Marr probably was not aware of the Turukkaeans at the time, otherwise he seems mostly correct, as the genetic studies proved beyond any reasonable doubt (see above) the original location as Turuk Kaganligi / Turuk Kingdom of Itabal (Itabalhum) around the Urumiye basin and southeastern Turkey.
Turuska (Sanskrit term for Turks, or land of the Turks, later for Muslims). Tur / Tyr can be found in city names in the Ancient World around the Mediterranean. There are some variants too, like the name Tarsisi, Akkadian of Tarsus, based on local god name Tarku.
In fact, TUR and TAR are also closely related as seen in Turkish Tarkan, and Tarquin, and Taurus mountains. Note the use of both the "u" and "a" sounds as if it is a superimposition of "Tar" and "Tur", hence the sound "Tor". Taru Hatti supreme god, equivalent of the Hurrian supreme god Tessub, Taur is the name of the Anatolian bull cult.
Tartar (Tar+Tar) or Tatar is a major ethnonym for the Turks from Central Asia. In Russia, the word Turk is synonymous with Tatar. Ancient Greek god Tartarus is probably related.
Ancient Spanish Tartessian, Tartessos are equally related and Basque - Caucasian linguistic relations are known.
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Map from my book "Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Civilizations and Languages"
Etruscan Bronze statuette of a Scythian mounted archer in Italy!
Scythians were the founders of the first major Eurasian Steppe empire in history. See the main article Scythians for more info.
This early 5th century BC artwork is from a funerary urn in Italy, belonging to Etruscan (Tuscany), Campanian (Southern Italy) culture. It has Western Anatolian (Phyrigian) cap and Central Asian (Scythian) jacket! Read the full description of this statuette in the New York Metropolitan Musuem website
Turuk Kaganligi / Turuk Kingdom a major power in Western Asia (Near East) 2200-800 BC
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Reading of the ethnonym Turuk from cuneiform tablets by F. Celilov - Baku, 2006 :
MAIN ARTICLE: Turuk Kingdoms and Etruscans' Long Journey from Iran/Eastern Anatolia!
Turuk (Turukkeans) kingdoms in the Near East were analyzed by Western scholars since at least 60 years! Yet, they are mentioned with only a few lines in Wikipedia, much less than Assyrian kings. Turuk history in the region can be derived from cuneiform Mesopotamian records mostly from the 19-18 century BC (Susharra / Shemsharra archives among others) but also from 1300-1200 BC Assyrian records too.
Unfortunately, only a few people in the world study this civilization. Even then, the existing information tells a lot about the Turuk kingdoms in Southeast Turkey, Northern Syria and Iraq and Northwestern Iran some 4200-2200 years ago. They and their land are referred to as Turukkum (Turuk+UM using additive nature of Turkish), Turukkeans, Turukkaeans, Turukki, and Turukku. This inconsitency is due to their refusal to use the original word Turuk.
Continue reading: Turuk Kingdoms and Etruscans' Long Journey from Iran/Eastern Anatolia!
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Etruscan is an Oghur Turkish (Hurrian) language with Anatolian characteristics!Oghur (Hurrian) is one of the three branches of the Turks, Turuk (Etruscan) is the name of the people. Just like today Kazak, Turkmen, Kirgiz people are Oguz Turks but have some differences in culture and language.
Sardinia, Italy - Sardis Lidya, Turkey - Sherden of the Sea Peoples Egypt and UgaritThe so-called mysterious Sea Peoples were a confederation of Peoples/Tribes just like the Turuk.
In the very important article of Italian linguistics Professor Massimo Pittau titled On Etruscan Language, we find a very important remark:
"There are quite numerous and quite obvious cultural and linguistic connections that bind with Asia Minor or Anatolia also the ancient civilization of Sardi Nuragici of Sardinia, which was the first “civilization” of Italy, as it has preceded that of Etruscans of four centuries (XIII-IX BC). There is also some information from ancient Greek historians, which shows that even the Sardi Nuragici came – just as the Etruscans – from the previously mentioned Lydia in Asia Minor. And it is also very likely that Sardinians have derived their name and that of their country Sardo-Sardinia from the name of Sardis or Sardeis, the capital of Lydia."
RECENT NEWS: Etruscan settlement found in Sardinia for the first time! January 8, 2018.
Sardes in Lydia Turkey, Sherden Sea People in Egypt and Sardinia in Italy are the same people. King Sarduris in Urartu, Eastern Anatolia is related too, as Turuk first migrated to Western Anatolia from Eastern Turkey before sailing to Italy.
Turuk in Troy, Lydia and Eastern Turkey and Trsh (Tursa, Tursha) in Egypt and Tursenoi in Greece, Tyrrhennian / Etruscans in Italy are the same people.
Sherden and Teresh were part of the Sea People alliance and were most probably related to each other in Anatolia, Turkey (Troy and Sardes in Lidya). This also suggests Anatolia and maybe parts of the Mycenaean Greece were the most probable origin of the Sea Peoples.
The founders of Sardinian civilization and the name Sardinia can be connected to Sardes, Lydia, Turkey.
Sardes was most probably Tartes as Afroasiatic Sherdan "şrdnn(m)" was written in Ugaritic as "trtn(m)". Ugaritic was Ugur/Oghur Turkish which evolved into Afroasiatic.
Comparing şrdnn(m) and trtn(m) we find "t > ş/sh" and "t > d" sound correspondances.
This makes sense as "t> ts> s", "s > sh", "t > d", and "d > s" sound transformations are observed in other Mesopotamian records as well.
So if we apply the reverse transformation to Sardes we arrive at the original sound: Tartes. This is what we find in Iberian peninsula Spain! Tartessos and Turudi in Iberian pre-Roman Spain are the same or closely related people. This would explain the existence of the toponym "Iber" both in Caucasia and Spain. Basque, Sumerian, Etruscan are related to each other and to Caucasian languages.
From The Etruscan Domination of the Sea (Thalassocracy) :
"According to various sources, the Etruscans colonised Corsica, the Balearic islands and the coasts of Spain (Stephanus of Byzantium), and there are records (Diodorus Siculus) of the struggle with the Phoenicians for an island in the Atlantic (possibly Madeira).
The names of the Tyrhhenian and the Adriatic seas came from the Etruscans (the Adriatic from the Etruscan city of Adria)."
Nuragic ceramics found at Tiryns, Mycenea simply shows the Turkish sea network in the Meditarranean before the so-called "Phoenicians" who were a mix of Hurrians and Afroasiatic people from the Levant.
One of the region names in Turuk kingdom around Lake Urmia in Iran and Southeast Turkey was Nurrugum, and Nurduggum is a city in Northern Mesopotamia and they are related to Nuragici of Sardinia civilization of Sardinia. See more in Etruscans' Journey from Turkey to Italy and their Origins in Southeastern Turkey, Northwestern Iran, Assyria and Mesopotamia
See also Etymology of the word Turk based on Mesopotamian written records)
Etymology of the word Roma (Rome, Italy)Mapping the location of the city/region name Urum from China to Rome, Italy shows the itinerary of the Silk Road more than a thousand years before the first known trade routes!
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Etymology of the word EtruscanAfroasiatic (Semitic) people, Arabs, are known to call Turk, Etrak. This is known from a much later period, Ottoman records. Turk > Etrak
We know that the word Tur had become Turs probably through Tur+Uz (Turz, Turs) and we have record of it in the name of the town of Tursa, Tursan, private names Turuse etc. among others. Hence if we apply the same transformation (sound change) we will find
Another possibility is that Turuse is known from Turuk Kingdom. Hence "Turuse+UK=Turusuk". The initial E, consonant cluster facilitator may have been Afroasiatic or Indo-European. Eturusuk > Etrusk with two vowel drops which are known to occur from Turkish "Tur-" to Indo-Euroepan "Tr-"
Note two sound changes are necessary to arrive at this conclusion. Now, we know that Etruscan has more Indo-European elements than Afroasiatic. It means that with the arrival of the "Indo-European" founders of the Hittite empire whose culture was based on Ugur Turks (Hurrian) and Hatti (Gat Turks) the language of the Turks may have gone through some changes in Anatolia.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)