By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on February 4, 2018, Updated February 20, 2018
The Results of the Genetic Tests Done on Modern Tuscan populationsInfo on all the genetic tests as well as additional linguistic, archaelogical, mythological info can be found on my the Origins of the Etruscans! article, and that article should be evaluated together with this one for a complete analysis of the Etruscan origins and journey. See also Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome
The two most recent papers on genetics research are: "A genome-wide study of modern-day Tuscans: revisiting Herodotus's theory on the origin of the Etruscans" 2014 and DNA Study proves Near East as the original homeland of the Etruscans, 2015.
The 2015 study is even more precise in locating the original homeland of the Etruscans, while confirming the results of the 2014 study.
First, let's look at the results on the map: The 2014 study and and the 2015 study .
(Related Side Note: Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7 U7 on Eurasian and African Map).
These studies were done on current Tuscan population in Italy, in 2014 and 2015, not on ancient remains. The 2004 study done on ancient remains stored in museums had already suggested Near Eastern roots of Etruscans: See The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study.
The results from both tests (2014,2015) are pretty clear: They all point to the area around the Lake Urumiye basin (Anglicized as Urmia basin) in Northwestern Iran, and Eastern Turkey,as the original homeland of the Etruscans. This is exactly the original homeland of the Turuk (Turukkum) known from Mesopotamian records.
The 2014 paper also shows a likely route that would probably need a minor correction, based on archaeological data (slightly more to the south) as: from Iran/Southeastern Turkey/Northern Iraq/Northern Syria to Western Turkey, and to Italy.
Now, we have the chance to compare this information from genetics research with all the other information from archaeology, mythology, linguistics, cultural history information obtained in the last 150 years, and determine the journey of the Turuk / Etruscans and find the correct answers to many other historic puzzles as well.
We know how Ancient Greece and Rome were connected, so let's also consider the above results together with the DNA studies on current Greek population and ancient people remains from Greece and Turkey.
Origins of the founders of Ancient Greece
(Click on the image to see it bigger)
Map from my book "Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Civilizations and Languages"
Main articles: Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece and
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece
Pre Greek Names in Greece and Turkey ending with: -ndos, -nthos/-ntha, -(s)sos/-(s)sa, -na
Genetic research published in August 2017 (Daily Mail summary) proved that the founders of the Minoan Greek civilization (starting around 2900 BC) in Crete island and Mycenaean civilization (1700-1100 BC) in mainland Greece had migrated from neighboring Anatolia (Turkey). Moreover Mycenaean Greeks had additional 4-16% DNA from Siberia.
Anatolian and Near Eastern origin of Minoan Crete was already suggested in a genetic study published on the Annals of Human Genetics in March 2008: Genetic study linking differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic on existing populations. So the 2008 genetic study on current populations in Greece was confirmed by the 2017 study done on ancient remains.
Moreover, there is a very important overlap on the Etruscan and Mycenaean origins: Armenia (South Caucasia) bordering Iran and Turkey, the Urmia basin in Iran and Southeastern Turkey. That's not all, the study clearly indicates Siberia as the origin of 4-16% of the founders of Mukanei introduced via Armenia (and further to the south. My Note) Also note that Mukanei is a Pre Greek Name Anglicized as Mycenaean.
This is very important because the original homeland of the Etruscans (1100 BC), and some of the founders Ancient Greece Mukanei (1700BC) point to the same area. Note also that many Etruscan DNA are descendants of U7, R haplogroup hence their ultimate origin is Central Asia and Siberia too, like the founders of Ancient Mycanaean Greece.
At least some founders of Ancient Greece and all of Ancient Rome can be traced to the same region Iran/Turkey/Mesopotamian region, the area in and around Southeastern Turkey, home to Turuk kingdoms as confirmed by Mesopotamian written accounts in 2200BC, 1800-1700BC and 1300-1200 BC.
Also note that the migration wave spreading from Turkish kingdoms in the 1300-1100 BC time frame led to the formation of Lydia, Lycia, Phrygia and Tabal kingdoms in Western Turkey and the Sea Peoples all over the Mediterranean, known as Turush / Tyrrhennians who were long associated with the Etruscans and Lydia, Shardana in Lidya and Sardinia in Italy among many others. This also caused the fall of the Mukanei civilization in the same time frame!
In the remaining sections of this article, we will see the reconfirmation of these events that perfectly fit the results of the genetic tests by comparing them with archaeological, linguistic and mythological evidence available from the 2900-800BC period and the conclusive evidence on who the Etruscans were.
This article along with my books and other articles on this site, will provide the answers for the major historic puzzles as well as provide the roots of Ancient Greece and Rome.
Also see more on migrations at Eurasian Migrations and Languages: Indo-European origins, Sumer, Yamna, Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley .
Some of the major events in Mesopotamia, Greece, Turkey, Italy, Egypt around 1200 BC, at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age CollapseLate Bronze age collapse was caused by famine.
- The attacks of the Turks in Eastern Turkey around the northern frontiers of Assyria (1300-1200BC)
- The fall of the kingdom of Mitanni in Anatolia (Turkey) (1300 BC)
- The fall of the Hittite Empire
- The fall of the Mycenaean Greece
- The fall of the Ugaz (Kas) - the Kassite Dynasty of Babylon
- Trojan War: The flight out of Troy (and/or Dardania) and possibly out of Smirna
- The attacks of the Sea Peoples, which included the Sherdana, and Turush people against Egypt
- The rise of the Tabal kingdom in Anatolia
- The rise of Lidya
- The rise of Lycia
- The rise of Phrygia
- Start of the Etruscan civilization in Italy (1100 BC)
- Formation of Turkish cities around the Mediterranean, in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Libya, and the Turuk Sea networks
Note how the events are in succession from East to West, starting in Eastern Anatolia in 1300 BC in Mitanni and progressing until the appearance of the Etruscans in Italy. The strict time frame of the Late Bronze Age collapse is 1200-900 BC, I have added Mitanni since mention of Turuk people in Assyrian records restart around this date.
Turuk Kaganligi / Turuk Kingdom a major power in Western Asia (Near East)
Most overlooked people/kingdom in Near-Eastern history studies, bar none.
Some of the other major overlooked civilizations are Ugur (Hurrian), Ogaz / Kas (Kassite), Uguz (Hyksos), Kut (Qutu, Guti, Gutean), but Turuk are almost never mentioned. Some say that there is little information about Turuk (Turukkeans) but the truth is, the existing information is spread out in a few books, none mentioning Turuk (or Turukkaeans) in their title.
Turuk (Turks), a predominantly Ugur (Hurrian) Turkish people living in Southeastern Turkey and Northwestern Iran, and Northern Mesopotamia (Northern Syria, Northern Iraq) formed Turuk Kaganligi -Turuk kingdoms and cities- between 2200-1200 BC (2200-800 BC including the Urartu kingdom) according to written cuneiform records. They had Mesopotamian material culture. They formed alliances and unions of tribes/people in the region and some of the people they have allied with seem to be Afroasiatic (Semitic).
In Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Volume 19. published in 1986 by German scholar Verlang von D. Reimer there is mention of Turuk (Turukkaeans),Su (Suteans) and Lullu (Lullubaeans) being differently named inhabitants of the Aratta country, who probably belonged to the Altaic-Turkish language community.
And then, there is another very important remark, that the "Upper Sea" mentioned in Sumero-Akkadian inscriptions, from Sumerian King Lugalzaggesi (around 2200 bc) onwards, meant the Urmia Lake.
Today, I can confidently say that these very important remarks are reconfirmed many times over with all the new research published since 1986.
In Russian researchers Anatole Klyosov and Norm Kisamov's great websites on Turkish history, by far the most comprehensive on the internet on Turkic ancient world, there are many important articles on Ancient Turks. Among them important articles on Ancient Mesopotamia:
Ancient Mesopotamia housed Turkic-sounding nomadic tribes Guties and Tukrish that kept appearing with Turkic tribes Kangar, Subartu and Kumans, and The First Turks. Some of the info is outdated/wrong but there are some important remarks in these articles.
One of the cuneiform records from around 1800BC mentions Tur-ki King Ilshu-Naim among the seventeen kings Akkadian King Naram Sin (2254-2218 BC) fought as shown by the German scholar Hans Gustav Guterbock. Turuk can be dated to 2380-2325 BC, but based on other evidence it is quite likely that their history goes back further than that, and Turkish presence in that area continued through today (Turuk kingdoms 2400-1100 BC, Mittani 1600 BC,Urartu kingdom 800BC and onward). Interestingly, of the 17 kings in Anatolia that Naram-Sin fought only Pamba, Ugat / Hatti King has a Wikipedia page even when Pamba is only mentioned in the same tablet like others.
Turuk Kingdom was made of smaller kingdoms each led by a king, they had a fairly complex political structure with a noble lineage as reported by Casper Eidem and Jorgen Laessoe. I should add that the political structure seems similar to Kurultai / Kurultay of the Mongolian khans and Turkish kagans recorded in a much later period in East Asia.
Most of Turuk's written history is constructed from the 1800-1700 BC period Assyrian and Hurrian records, from when Turuk fought major battles against the Assyrian kings after suffering from famine for many years due to Kut (Qutu, Guti) aggression, another Turkish people and their powerful enemy. They won some of the battles and lost others. Some of the Turuk were held captive in Assyrian cities as slaves, others lived as refugees.
A prominent Turuk king named Lidaya revolted against the Assyrians, and attacked in Susharra (Shemsharra) region. He was eventually defeated and fled around 1700BC. He seems like a signficant figure in Turuk history. 500 years later the kingdom of Lidya appeared in Western Turkey, when Turuk migrated West from Eastern Turkey.
In a book titled "Constituent, Confederate, and Conquered Space: The Emergence of the Mittani" edited by Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum, Nicole Brisch, Jesper Eidem, it is revealed that Hammurabi boasted about being victorious over the Turuk who fled north to Anatolia. The authors mention that Turuk people may have been among the founders of the Mittani State.
Turuk kingdoms were such a major force that Assyrian King Ishme Dagan accepted a dynastic marriage for his son in order to avoid defeat.
Also note that dynastic marriages were common in Turk Kaganligi in Eastern Siberia, especially to avoid war with the Chinese.
Some of the Turuk people migrated out of Northern Mesopotamia in around 1800BC due to famine. This clearly reminds us of Herodotus account on Etruscans, that half of the Lydians migrated to Italy due to famine after a draw and the other half remained in Lydia. It also reminds me of the famed Turkish myth Ergenekon: Turks migrated to a beautiful valley but in time, overpopulation caused major problems including famine and they had to melt an iron mountain to get out and migrate to a better place. Of special importance are the themes of migrations, overpopulation and famine as well as melting the iron mountains clear indication of the Iron Age.
Turuk people were still present in Northern and Northeastern frontiers of Assyria, (Northern Iraq and Syria and Southeastern Turkey) around the time of the fall of the Mittani kingdom in 1300-1200 BC which is also very close to the date of the fall of the Hatti / Hittite Empire.
And Turks were still present in Eastern Turkey around Lake Van during the Urartu kingdom (800 BC), Turuspa / Turushpa also called Tushpa, was the capital of the kingdom of Urartu. Note the loss of the "UR" sound from Turushpa to Tushpa. Language of Urartu, Urartian, was based on Hurrian hence the term Hurro-Urartian. Hurrian (Ugur) was the language of the Turuk, hence Ugur Turkish.
Continuity of Turuk People/Kingdom in Ancient Near East (West Asia) can be observed for at least three periods 2200 BC, 1800-1700BC and 1300-1200BC plus the Urartu Kingdom (800 BC).
Jesper Eidem remarks that the distinction between the Turuk and Lulu, two different people living in the same area, was primarily socio-political rather than linguistic.
Turuk ResearchInfo on Turuk kingdome and people can largely be found in the following online resources. It is not a complete list since Turuk people are mentioned in many different works based on cuneiform tablets from a number of archaeological sites in Anatolia and Mesopotamia.
Jorgen Laessoe's People of Ancient Assyria: Their Inscriptions and Correspondence, Jesper Eidem and Jorgen Laessoe's The Shemshara Archives Vol. 1 The Letters and The Shemshara Archives 2: Administrative Textsby Jesper Eidem, as well as Routledge Handbook, The Peoples, Ancient Western Asia by Trevor Bryce 2009 for information on Turuk kingdoms.
Of the many small Turkish kingdoms the most important one was Itabal(+hum hence Itabalhum) whose capital was Kunsum (Kunshum). It was most probably located in the Urmia basin. Italian professor Pizzorno suggests that Dinkha Tepe near Urmia Lake may be Kunsum, capital of the kingdom of Itabalhum.
Three words in one: TURUK, and the early religious ethnonym TURTur+Uk = Turuk.
Tur, Uk and Turuk are among the most basic Turkish words.
In ancient world history, there is only one population known as Turuk, the Turks. Turuk and Turk are used interchangeably in Orhun runic inscriptions from East Asia which have some similarities with the Etruscan characters.
The political structure of Turuk is very typical of Turkish states and tribes in Central Asia and Siberia. The society maybe solely comprised of different Turkish tribes/people or in unison with the Mongols and others.
Another important feature is the delegation of power to local people/tribes and collective action against the enemies.
"Uk/Ok" is added to people/tribe names to indicate a collection of "Bod" and "Boy" (designation of collection of people, tribes). See more on Turkish state formation at: Ug, Aug, Augustus, Augur
"Ug/Uk" Means family, collection of tribes in Turkish and is also known from Sumerian Turkish as Ug which means people. UK/OK is added to people names such as Bozok, On-Ok etc. Note "voiced g" > g > k sound changes which are well known in Turkish. Assyriologists and Sumerologists debate whether to use g or k for certain Sumerian Turkish words.
Hence the ethnonym Tur+Uk=Turuk points to a collection of Tur people, a union of polities/kingdoms. The collection of Turuk may have included Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European people too as Turuk are known to be predominantly Hurrian but of mixed stock with some Afroasiatic people. Wars, alliances, unions, state and empire building of the Turks are well documented in East Asia but from a later period, mostly in Chinese records.
Tur was one of the three sons of the King of Iran in Iranian legends. The word Turan, an attribute for the Turks and Turkish lands is made of Tur+An both Turkish words, but Turan is first found in Iranian records. Note the AN ending in Turan is the same AN as in Turkmenistan, Azerbaycan, Kazakistan etc., and the same sound can be found in Sumerian sky /sky god AN, as well as Tengri, Sumerian Dingir.
Iran was populated with Turks throughout history and even today they are a sizeable minority. Iran neighbors Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, all Turkish states. Indo-Iranians and Turks lived side by side in Iran since thousands of years.
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TURUK KING, PLACE AND PERSON NAMESThese personal Turuk names are particularly important not only in their apparent Turkishness but many are also city names in Northern Iraq, Northern Syria and Southeastern Turkey.
So, this is not a comparison based only on the similarity of names but also based on Turuk presence in Northern frontiers of Assyria, and Northern Mesopotamia.
Turuse (compare with the Latin word Etursci, Greek Tursenoi for the Etruscans. See below for details)
Turuga/Turugaja (Tur+Gaja. Gaja reminds of Greek Gaia, Turkish Kaya=rock)
Ugur-atal (Note Ugur=Huur/Hurrian)
Talpush (ALP was one word for Kagan in Ancient Turks and still a popular name. It is very likely that Italian/Swiss Alpes are named after ALP)
Tabitu was the son of the Itabal / Itabalhum king Pisenden (Pishenden, s>sh very frequently interchanged). Tabiti was the highest deity of the Scythians who lived in Western Iran as well.
Lidaya (Lidaja) was a major king of the Turuk. Compare that to Lydia Kingdom (Turkish Lidya Kingdom). See below for more.
The name Ugutlae or Ugutlay is particularly interesting. Although it has long been known that many of the Kut (Guti,Gutian,Gutean) king names were Turkish such as Tirigan, Yarlagan, Şarlak etc, Ugutlay is close to Gudea, or Turkish Kutay.
One of the places in Turuk kingdom was Nurrugum, probably related to Nurragi civilization of Sardinia.
In Itabal kingdom, people of Kunshum and Utum are mentioned. Note the -UM ending in city names which means afterlife.
The son of Zagros King Nassumar was named Tarugur. And due to the additive nature of Turkish/ Ugur Turkish we can easily see that it is TAR+UGUR. This personal name is especially important because Tarugur is the heir, son of the king. TAR is godly power as in Tarkan, Hattic god Taru. Compare that to Luwian God of Storm Tarhun which is compared to Etruscan Tarchan /Tarkan.
Ugur is Huur (Anglicized as Hurrian). Compare Ugur with Ugar in Ugarit (Ugarut), Hurrian named Afroasiatic (Semitic) ancient city.
Also note that the oldest languages of Turkey were Gat (Hatti) and Ugur (Hurrian) both additive (agglutinative) SOV languages like Sumerian Turkish and Turkish. Ugat/Gat (Hatti) and Ugur (Hurrian) are also the oldest major civilizations in Anatolia.
It is known that the world's first language was SOV (subject-object-verb) and I have suggested that it had to be additive (agglutinative) too. Sumerian, the world's first known language, is SOV and additive.
Ancient king, place and people names had meanings, mostly religion related like Egyptian king Tutankhamun meant "living image of Amun", Sumerian king Bilgamesh (Gilgamesh) which meant "Wise Noble" in Turkish. He is the hero of the first existential myth of humanity.
Turuk are known to be Ugur (Hurrian), or Turukkaean Hurrians and they are the first recorded mention of Ugur Turks by name.
Turuk attacked Assyrian towns East of Tigris in Northeast Iraq over a long period of time. Kut were the most powerful force in the area (part of SuKut, Scyth) and a constant threat to Turuk. In time Turuk controlled a large in from Western Iran, Southeastern Turkey and Northern Iraq. Lullu's (Lullubi, Lullubeans) were part of the Turuk alliance and they were Turks as well.
Diplomacy of Turuk and Assyrians can be observed in the letters found in Shemsharra (Susharra) archives, Mari texts too are among the primary sources of information about the Turuk.
They controlled the land between Tigris and the Zagros foothills in addition to their central kingdom Itabalhum located near Lake Urumiye basin in Iran and other smaller polities. Tigris - Zagros area as well as their original homeland in Urmia shows their important location in between other civilizations such as Assyria, Elam, Babylon, Hittite and Kut. They were very close to Lake Van in Eastern Turkey, home to the Urartu civilization founded by Hurrian speaking people with some Indo-European rulers.
Turuk, not Turukku or TurukkaeansReading of the ethnonym Turuk from cuneiform tablets by F. Celilov - Baku, 2006 :
As you can see the ending is standart "ki" "i". And "Ki" means land/people in Sumerian. The word is either Turu hence Tur(u) or Turuk. Anglicized word "Turukkaeans" used in Wikipedia does not help.
It is important to conserve the original words. Private names had meanings in Ancient languages and can provide clues about the identity and beliefs of the people. Also Huur is the original (mis)reading Anglicized as Hurrian.
Confirming Etruscans' Journey through LinguisticsOne can check people and city names with TAR and TUR as well as social words like "UG", Toponyms in Turkey to find the path Turuk (Etruscans) have taken from Southeast Turkey to Italy. The city names ending with -na as in Adana and Symrna (Izmir) are most probably Etruscan just like the Hurrian Etruscan (Oghur Turks) city Tarkna (Tarchna) in Italy. These are the civilization founding people mentioned as Pre-Greek in Greece and Turkey before the Greeks.
Let us also note the existence of the ancient town Tursa (or Tursha) near major Hurrian center Nuzi. Celilov correctly identifies Tursa with the Etruscans.
Genetics and name of the people and cities along the route perfectly match Etruscan with Turuk!
Turks are the most mixed of all people. What makes a Turk are the language and culture, and not the race.
Map of the Ancient Near East 2200-1200 BC. Image from Wikimedia. I have added ancient Turuk cities/regions with names beginning with TUR- and TARK (Terq/Tarq like Turuk) and TAR-.
Note how the capital of the Assyrian kingdom Assur is surrounded by Ugur Turuk (Hurrian Turukkean) cities/regions and there are others towards the North: Tursa (Tursha), Tursan, Terqa, Tarqanu, Turira among others.
Turuk are known to be both migrants and city founders / dwellers who built a union / federation of people/tribes. Exactly like the Turks of Central Asia and Siberia from 2000 years ago!
I have dedicated one of the chapters of my book Sumerian Turks: Civilization's Journey from Siberia to Mesopatamia to Turuk(ku).
KING, PEOPLE, CITY/COUNTRY names have meanings (Mostly religious)Unfortunately not many people study names especially their religious significance some 3000-5000 years ago.
Some of the Turuk KingsZaziya, Arikdeenili, Pisenden, Pishenden's father Turukti (Tukukti), Lidaya.
City of Terqa: DNA research on ancient grave remains have proven migrations from India and South Central AsiaTerqa is the name of an ancient city located on the banks of the middle Euphrates in Syria. Clearly a Turuk name, similar to Turuk or Tark in Tarkan, located within the Turuk regions of Northeastern Syria.
mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization. From the study:
"M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan."
This is to be expected as shown in my Mystery of the Egyptian Pyramids solved: Siberian mountains and Sumerian Ziggurats! article and the fact that most important stone in Sumer religion, Lapis Lazuli was brought from Eastern Afghanistan mountains.
And this is perfectly in line with the linguistic connection of Sanskrit and Latin and Etruscan.
TAB: the word of the Iron Age
From Jesper Eidem and Jorgen Laessoe's People of The Shemshara Archives Vol. 1 The Letters:
“Pisenden, son of Tukukti, king of the land of Itabal, begetter of Tabitu”
Another seal inscription provides the name of Pisenden’s grandfather (Seal 3):
“Turukti, son of Ustap-sarri, king of Itabal, conqueror of his enemies, father of AD-....”
Turukti and Tukukti are the same person. (k>r)
The TAB sound in both Itabal kingdom and Tabitu is important.
In Scythian Mythology by Dmitriy Raevskiy:
"Scythian goddess Tabiti was ranked in first position. Specialists in Iranian studies have proposed a convincing etymology of her name: "warm- ing" or "flaming".
Tabitu was the son of Pishenden (Pisenden), apparent heir.
See TEB to pour, to cast in Hurrian by Gianpaolo Tardivo and Philippos Kitselis.
TAB means pour in Sumerian Turkish.
TAB (Turkish TAV after common b>v tranformation) means heating iron in both Persian and Turkish!
The stem TAB has a Turkish and Sumerian Turkish etymology and can be found in Scythian highest goddess Tabiti, Central Turuk Kingdom Itabal, Turuk king heir Tabitu, Tabetum in Ancient Syria, Tabal Kingdom in Anatolia, and Tabala in Lydia. Note that these city names coincide with Turuk names with TUR, TAR, TARK etc. in both Eastern and Western Anatolia.
TABATUM, TABETUTABATUM AND ITS RELATIONS WITH MARI AND TERQA
ROYAL LINE OF THE KINGDOM OF TERQA OR THE LAND OF HANA in the light of the data contained in the tablets from Terqa/Tell Asara by Japanese archaeologist Shigeo Yamada, 2011.
"Studies of these texts revealed historical-cultural aspects of life in and around the city of Tabatum or Tabetu, identified with Tell Taban, at different periods during the second millennium BC, in particular in the latter half of the 18th century BC (Middle Chronology) and later in the 13th-11th centuries BC."
This city is part of the Turuk regions of Northern Mesopotamia.
TURSATursa / Tursha Hurrian city 50 km northwest of Nuzi near Kirkuk.
TursanIn the 12 century BC, the city of Tursan was the capital of an Assyrian province Terqa
The city Tursan on the other side of the Lower Zab
TarhuntassaTarhuntassa is a Hittite Bronze Age city in Asia Minor. Tarhun+Tassa. Tarhun is khown related to Turuk/Etruscan Tarkan.
TarbisuTarbisu was an ancient city about 5 km north of Nineveh: Info on Tarbisu
Tarbashe: Settlement, Economy, and Society in the Tell Leilan Region, Syria, 3000-1000 BC
TARSUSTarsus name is suggested to be based on local god Tarku. May have been Tursa or Turosa. Akkadian Tarsisi (Tarshish).
A user with screen name CiegaSordomud had an important suggestion:
"There is other supportive evidence that links materials found in the Middle Minoan period 1700BC, to those in Cilicia, Crete and Troy. Hurrian merchants could have easily settled into parts of the Aegean, as their population lived near the coast.
Its also interesting to note that one of the Linear A words read with Linear B values mentions TURUSA and IDA.
A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja tu-ru-sa du-ra2-re I-da-a / u-na-ka-na-si I-pi-na-ma si-ru-te
If Ida is the geographical connected to Crete, then Turusa could be a rendering of Cilician Tarsus. And it could very well be a description of a voyage between those two places that occurred frequently in those times."
Turus or TursTurus is a word marking the migration of people out of Eastern Turkey/Northern Mesopotamia/Northwestern Iran and apparently part of the pre-Greek names in Greek language, including the -us sound in Greek and Latin word endings..
Turuk personal names included Turisa, Turisu, Turse, Turuse as seen above. Similar city names such as Tursan, Tursa etc. are known from Northern Mesopotamia, near Asur, capital of Assyria.
Turus or Turs can easily be derived from Turus=Tur+Us but what does "us" mean?
Ancient city names ending with -us/-sus/-ssos/-os/ form a continuity from Northern Mesopotamia, Eastern Turkey to Western Turkey and Greece. This was first noticed by Paul Krestchmer in 1894 and developped by Blegen in 1928. See Pre-Greek names in Turkey and Greece for more info.
A user by the name Adyghe Chabadi cites some of the ancient etnonyms and suggests a root word:
Tyrsenoi, Turrhenioi (Attic Greek), Tursenoi (Ionic), Tursanoi (Doric), Tyrrheni (Latin), Tusci (Latin), *Tursci > Turskum (Umbrian), Etrusci (Latin) and Tursis (Greek) > Turris (Latin), Tyrannos (Greek), tyrannus (Latin), Turan (Etruscan goddess) are related then an Eastern identification can be educatedly set forward. The hypothetical root word is *turs-."
An important comment but it needs some small corrections and major additions. The root word one should actually look for is Tur(u). But later on it became Tur(u)s.
As for the "us" sound: Turkish sound changed probably due to Afroasiatic spelling, which was Ut in Turkish. T>Z and T>S sound changes are well known. Uz in Turkish is part of the Oguz, another major Turkish people and "Uz" means plural, much like "Us" in English and also is part of "Biz" in Turkish which means "Us".
Capital of the Urartu kingdom Turuspa (Turus+Apa) Turushpa Tushpa another Urartu - Lidya - Etruscan connectionTuruspa was the capital of the kingdom of Urartu.
Apa means father in Etruscan and is added to god names like Pitar to Roman God names.
Note the UR sound is omitted from Turushpa to Tushpa. A similar thing happens with Urartian King Sarduris of Tushpa with the Lydian city of Sardis. Latin Etrusci became Tusci hence Toscana. The same sound change happened in Urartu, Lidya and Italy.
The name "Sard" in Sardis, capital of Lydia, was closely connected to the name Tyrrhenian which was probably Turugan and same as Tursenoi in Greek. Note the addition of the sound UG to TUR like in Turog/Troy instead of -us. Also note g>h tranformation like in Ugur > Huur.
Taurus MountainsA mountain range of historic significance in Turkey. Yoruk Turkleri, a migrating community known in short as Yoruk, still live in the Taurus range. Taur+us=Taurus. Taur related to both Tur and Tar. Taru, Minoan and Hatti bull cult both sun cults as well.
Tur AbdinAssyrian King Adad Nirari who lived around 1300BC, mentions Hurrian region Kashieri, which is known in Syriac Aramaic as Tur Abdin, meaning Mountain of the Worshippers. Old Aramaic is first known from around 900 BC and Syriac Aramaic around 500 BC. Tur means mountain which is definitely the Tur in Turuk who lived in this hilly region West of Mardin, near the Iraq and Syrian borders of Turkey.
Turmitta (Durmitta)Tur + Mitta = Turmitta, related to both Turuk and Mittani.
Middle and Late Bronze Age city and country in Morth Central Turkey.
Turhumit - Turmitta in Central Anatolia
TuriraTuruk city of Turira (by Trevor Bryce The Kingdom of the Hittites) is mentioned by Assyrian king Adad-nirari I. (1295 - 1263 BC).
It was located near the border between Mitanni, Hatti and Assyria. It could be Ziyaret Tepe hoyugu near Diyarbakir.
Kingdom of Tabal, Central Southern Turkey after the fall of the Hittite Empire (around 1178 BC)It was Turuk kingdom at least partially Luwian speaking. Note that Etruscan (Turuk) is also shown to be related to Luwian, an Anatolian language, by Fred Woudhizen. Moreover Luwian highest god Tarhun is related to Turkish Tarkan.
The correspondance of Tabal with the major Turuk kindgom of Itabal is obvious and shows the Westward migration of the Turks.
Some info on Tabal Kingdom
Tabal and Phyrigia
Tarout Island, Kingdom of DilmunTarout was the heart of the Kingdom of Dilmun mentioned in Sumerian records.
Dilmun kingdom is known to appear around 3000 BC. It was located in Eastern Coast of Saudi Arabia, between Kuwait and Qatar and included Bahrain.
The striking fact is that the haplogroup that is mapped in the Etruscan genetic study, U7a4 (also U7 and its subclades) is also found in this area in large numbers in addition to Caspian Sea coast of Azerbaijan, maybe indicating a migration south from the Caspian sea area to the Gulf region passing through Sumer lands in Iraq!
See maps, highest concentration of people around Iran, Caspian Sea, Saudi Arabia: 2014 study and 2015 study and, U7 on map
Tarout was a major port city that traded with India. A Sumerian statue was found in Tarout!
Dardania, Shardana, Dardan Sardan TurushaDardania was located in the Northwestern corner of Anatolia, to the immediate north of Troy, and facing modern Gallipoli across the Dardanelles. The Trojans and Dardanians were probably of the same stock.
This is not only correct but also important! Dardan or Shardan (d>s>sh) transformation is known though it has to be investigated why the second d is not transformed as well.
They were both Turuk and were associated with Lidya, Tarkan and Sardis in Western Turkey like in Eastern Turkey.
Sardinia, Sarduris Urartu, Sardis Lydia, Shardan Sea People tribes and Etruscans-Turuk-Troy-Turushpa Urartu-Trsh (Turush) Sea people were one and same and lived together throughout their land and sea journeys.
TROYTurug/Turogh > Turoi > Troya.
TuroyoTuroyo is a Central Neo-Aramaic language traditionally spoken in Eastern Turkey and Northeastern Syria by Syriac Christians.
UgaritThe so-called Afroasiatic city's name is Turkish: Ugar+It. Ugur and It are found in Turuk king/people name.
TarqanuTarqanu is to be sought near Tursan (on the south bank of the Lower Zab; Nashef 1982: 266; Fincke 1993: 305ff.) and Assur (Asur, Capital of the Assyrian Empire) as mentioned in Anatolian Neo-Assyrian documents.
TAHARQA, Egyptian KingTaharqa was a pharaoh of the Kingdom of Kush, 7th century BC Egypt.
Related info: First ever genome study of mummies reveals they were more Turkish and European than African .
First King of Troy: TROJAN TEUCERThe Aeneid written by Virgil tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who became the ancestor of the Romans. This story clearly suggests Trojans were the Etruscans.
Teucer was the first king of Troy.
Tukrish had been neighbours of the Guti in western Persia and Turuk. They may have been Lullu hence Turuk.
Compare Latin Teucrus and Tukrish which not only sound the same, but is backed by the evidence of migration from the lands of Turuk to Lidya.
LYDIALydian kingdom existed between 1200 BC and 546 BC. The founding of Lydia is from about the same time period as the appearance of the Sea Peoples like Shardana, Turush (Trsh) in Egypt. It also coincides with the wars between Turuk and Assyrian kings in Northern Mesopotamia in the 1200-1300 BC.
It is already established that Tyrrhennians are the Etruscans, and that the Sea Peoples Turush are the same people.
Tabala in Lydia (today Burgazkale) reminds of Tabal Kingdom neighboring Lydia, and Itabalhum of Turuk and Tabelu of Northern Syria.
Tralles (Aydin) was most probably Turalles.
Tripolis in Lydia: Tripolis on the Meander, was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia.
"Phoenicians" from the Lebanese city of Tur (Tyre) are known to found the Libyan city of Tripoli. Hence TUR > TR.
Anatolian Weather God TarhunTarhun, also spelled Taru, Tarhu, Tarhunt, Tarhunna, Tarhunz, or Tarhuis was the ancient Anatolian weather god.
Taru was the name of a similar Gat (Hattic) Storm God.
Similar to Tessub the Hurrian weather god.
From the common root tarh-, “to conquer”. Tarh(u) in cuneiform.
I demonstrated that the second syllable HU was UG with voiced G, very similar sounds but Ug is Turkish. And the correct form should be Tarugun. A similar thing happens with Uğun becoming Hun.
ITALYThere are many ancient cities in Italy with Tur- and Tar-and its derivatives Tr-, Dr-, Syr- etc.
Turin, Tarchna, Magna Grecia cities Thurii, Taranto / Tarentum (formerly the Greek colony of Taras) and others.
Taormina. Tirso River and, in archaic ages, the so-called Afroasiatic (semitic) colony of Tharros.
The Tirso (Sardinian: Tirsu, Latin Thyrsus) the most important of the island of Sardinia founded by Sardes/Shardan from Turkey.
Ancient Roman city of Tarentum (formerly the Greek colony of Taras) -sos -os.
Drepana a harbour town in Sicily has Dr- beginning which is from Tur > Tr > Dr sound changes.
Compare it with Trapezus, Trabizonda, modern Trabzon with the Turkish Black Sea harbour town not far from Urartu and Turuk kingdoms.
Syracuse is Turacuse and is formed through T > S sound change very frequently found in Mesoptamian cueniform records. T>D>S sound changes as in Nidaba > Nisaba,
Celtiberians, Pre-Roman SpainTursa.
Pre-Roman Spain onomastics work on Tur- and Tar- such as Tartessos reveals a lot of similarities with Turkey, Italy, Northern Iraq and Northern Syria as well as other parts in the Mediterranean.
Torre, Turrioni, Turraconi, Tour, Tracinella seem to be of Turkish origin.
Toponym Tur- Estudios de celtiberico y de toponimia prerromana by Francisco Villar, Universidad de Salamanca, 1995 - 273 paginas.
"Martial, Book IV: A Commentary" by Rosario Moreno Soldevila mentions this 1995 for Celtiberian names with Tur- like Turgonti on page 199-244. The Language(s) of the Callaeci on Celtic language by Eugenio R. Lujan Martínez, Dept. Filología Griega y Linguística Indoeuropea, Universidad Complutense de Madrid has this comment:
"...Turriga (Ptol. II 6.22). This could be explained as a derivative in -ica belonging to the series of place-names in tur-, on which see Villar (1995a: 199-244), who explains them as built on the IE stem *tur- (from *teuH2- 'swell, be strong', with -r-, cf. *turo- 'strong')..."
While the comment of Villar on the meaning of the word TURO is quite similar to the meaning of TUR- Tar-, Tarh- in Anatolia which forms the basis of the most powerful Anatolian gods Tarhun, bull cult and god Taru, and Taurus, it is certainly not of Indo-European origin. Not only Gat (Hattic) god Taru preceeds Tarhun which is itself based on Turuk religion, it also is very close to god of the Turks Tur, Chuvash Turks Tura assumed to be a derivative of the Turkish Tengri/Sumerian Dingir. I disagree that Tura derives directly from Tengri, Tura is derived from the same root words that form Tengri as I explained in my "Sun Language THeory Proven: the Birth of Languages and Civilizations" book.
This is another major proof that pre-Roman Spain was populated by the Sea Peoples known as Turush/Italian Etruscans/Turuk from Anatolia.
2017 BESIKTAS, ISTANBUL FINDSThe 3000 years old Besiktas finds are very interesting because they could be Trachians or Turuk (Etruscans) both Turks. Kurgans and funerary urn type of burials are found side by side, like the Etruscans.
Etruscan Tombs and TumulusTumulus is said to be the Latin name for Turkish Kurgan, in reality the word Tumulus is also of Turkish origin. In fact the Turuk region of Utum near Itabalhum have the meaning and religious significance same as Tum in Tumulus, the first "u" is dropped like in countless other cases.
Mount Tmolus in Lidya named after the Lidyan king seems to be related.
Kurgans/Tumulus are another evidence of the Turkish nature of the Etruscans. European scholars in the 1800s had said the same but they are long ignored by the modern main Western scholarship which prefers lies over truth.
(For example see Oxford lies regarding Sumerian research, Case study: June 2017 twitter exchanges as an example among many others).
UM, the sound we find in Turukkum, Ruma (Ruma > Roma), Tumulus (Kurgan), Tumor in English is the same sound of death and afterlife! See my book "Sun Language Theory Proven! The Birth of Languages and Civilizations" for more. No wonder Etruscan tombs were more luxurious and filled with more goods than their home! They wanted to live happily in the afterlife with their spouses and their kin.
TER in the MediterraneanThe word Mediterranean means between Ter is derived from Tur/Tar. Terra which means earth also comes from Ter, from Tur in Turkish.
CentaurThe famed half-man half-horse creature from Greek mythology Kentaur is Ken+Taur and of Turkish origin. Turks are well known as the first horsemen of Eurasia.
LONG DISTANCE TRADE: Urartu - EtruscanI have already explored the condition under which long distance trade can develop in my book on Sumerian origins: The trade must take place among same people or people with close linguistic relations. Or there has to be an intermediary that does all that as is the case thousands of years later.
Western part of the Silk Road, forerunner of the Silk Road from Siberia to Rome 600 years before the Silk Road from China can be found between Urartu, Turkey and Rome, Italy.
In The Etruscan World edited by Jean MacIntosh Turfa, it is revealed that Urartian cauldron ornaments have been found in Rhodes, Athens, Boeotia, Delphi, Olympia and in Etruscan tombs.
One should add Yeravan, Armenia cauldron too.
Also see Urartian Bronzes in Etruscan Tombs
Oguric or Ogur, Oghur people/languagesThe word Ugric was also used instead of Oguric, Ogur Turkish.
Western Eurasia records the Onogur, Onogurs (Avnagur, Aunagur), Utigurs and Kutrigurs, Huns, Hungar, Bulgars were Ogur Turkish people of ancient Eurasia. The only remaining Ogur Turkish people/language are the Chuvash in Russia.
Chuvash God Tura and the ScythiansFrom: Scythians were the Turkic Bulgars
"...The name Targitaios can be explained as "the wedding of gods”. This wedding can be referred to the known in mythology category of "the sacred marriages" of old ancestors (LEVINTON G.A. 1991, MFW, Volume 2: 422-423). Targitaios had three sons: Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs and Colaxaïs. V. Abayev, which is considered to be a great authority in Scythian linguistic, asserted that the second part of these names is -ksay and explained it as "a king-ruler" (Av *xayas "to shine"). Therefore he gave for Colaksay such etymology: *Xola-xayasa "Sun-king" (ABAYEV V.I. 1965: 35).... "
Scythians used Targitaios for their kings. Note the Tar- stem. Tabiti/Tabitu is the Eastern association of Turuk with the Scythians.
So the connection of Etruscans to Scythians can firmly be established in both ends: in Eastern Anatolia and Italy!
AramaicAramaic, Syriac is known as an Afroasiatic language but it could be close to Ugur Turkish. The words Aram and Urum are related.
Let's also not forget Urum language of The Turks from a much later period still spoken in parts of the Caucuses. Rum means Greek in Turkish and Urum language is associated with the Greeks in Turkey. It may only be a name similarity, but that similarity is important to show the existence of the ethnonym Urum and its continuity since thousands of years.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)