By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on September 26, 2019, Updated on October 10, 2019
PART V: Is it the Caucasus mountains or the Taurus / Zagros ? Indo-European Homeland Proven!
PART IV: English, Greek, Latin and other Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
PART III: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus
PART II: Incontrovertible proof: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish.
PART I: Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans
- Major genetics news (March 2019) from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles on the origin of Indo-European languages! The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J.
The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
DaughterContinued from: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
Are the words for "water" and "daughter" related in sound and meaning?
The kinship term closest to the sound "uğatar" (water) is "daughter". With the addition of a "d", the ancient word for water, "uğatar" becomes "duğatar". Moreover, with a change of vowel order it becomes "dağutar" hence "daughter". What is the logic behind adding a "d" sound?
In Sumerian, "Uğ"="people" and "a"="water, progeny semen".
Ug+u=Ugu, "Ugu" means "giving birth". "Ug+a"="Uga" as seen before, the basis of the word for "water" in Indo-European, means "milk" in Sumerian and it is most closely related to Sumerian "Ugu", birth.
In modern Turkish, "Doğ" means "to be born", "Doğu" means "East", where the sun is born.
"Doğ+um"="Doğum" means "birth" in Turkish while Sumerian word "dumu" means child.
As seen also with the word daughter, a "d" sound is added to Sumerian / Turkish "uğu" / "uğa" to form Turkish "Doğ". Where does that "d" sound come from?
The answer lies in Sun Language Theory: Another Sumerian word for "giving birth", "bear child" is "utud". It is formed through addition of "ut" and "ud" > ut+ud = utud.
Both "ut" and "ud" mean "sun" in Sumerian Turkish. It would literally mean sun+sun, a word duplication meaning: many sun, most sun.
The Sumerian word "dumu" (du+mu) which means "child, son, daughter", has the same "du" root. And the "mu" means "woman", "umia" people, "ama" mother. Sumerian "du" also means "to build" hence the meaning of "child" would literally be "what woman built/cretaed" in line with modern "to make baby" by using the additive property of the Sumerian language.
It is clear that the "du/d" sound in "utud" and "dumu" is related to the act of bearing and giving birth , while "ug" to people, bearing child, and milk. (Side note: Iurii Mosenkis' paper mentions Sumerian su4 ‘to grow, to multiply’ and PIE *su- ‘to give birth’. I have already shown that in Mesopotamian records, d > s was common hence "du" > "su" is a likely transformation.)
Turkish "türe" (to grow, breed) and "üre" (to grow breed) means the same with the addition of "tu": Tu+üre=Türe.
A similar thing is also seen as "toğ" (to be born) and "oğ" (people as in Sumerian uğ): Tu+oğ= Toğ
It is also known that "tu" is connected to grow and breed in Turkish. "tu" means to give birth in Tatar and Altai Turkish.
Hence "tu/du" as "giving birth/breed" is found in both Sumerian and Turkish in the same way with the same words, just like uğ" meaning people in both languages.
We see Sumerian, Turkish -and Indo-European (see below)- use the same basic words for birth.
The Sumerian word for "sun" which is "ut"( also "ud") is the basis of "d" in Duğu": Ud+uğu= Uduğu and with the initial vowel drop as seen in "amatar" > "matar", "apatar" > "patar" etc., we obtain "Duğu/Doğu" the modern Turkish word for East and birth "doğum" and the English word "Daughter" (=Doğ+Tar which would mean the power - tar - to give birth -doğ-). One important note is that the sound "u" preceeds "o" in linguistic evolution and is later replaced by "o" in many words.
As another side note for the "uğa" sound that I reconstructed instead of "wa" in English word water, Mongolian "uğu" means to drink and Sakha/Yakut Turkish "uu" means water. It is not hard to see that Altaic "uu" had a "ğ" that disappeared hence in Altai Turkish "uğu" was used for water. "ög" means mother in Ancient Turkish.
To recap, let's look at comparison of some of the most basic words:
|In Sumerian (University of Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary) we have:
||In ancient Turkish: (all of the below words are still in use, two as root of a word)|
|a = Water, progeny, semen
Uğ = People, kinship, tribe
Ugu = Birth
Uga = Milk
Gu = Eat
An = Sky
Ut / Ud = Sun
Utud = Birth
Ama = Mother
Mi/Mu = Woman
Du = To Build
Dumu = Child
Dim / Mud = To Create
Sağ du = To Beget
Sag = Head
Su(ğ) = To grow, to multiply
|Uğ = People, kinship, tribe
Og = Mother
Ana = Mother (related to Sumerian "ama" mother. m, n both nasal sounds)
Uğu = Water in Altai Turkish (Saka/Yakut "uu")
Oğul = Child (nowadays used strictly for son)
Toğ/Doğ = To be born
Tu = To breed, to give birth.
Soy = Kinship, lineage (toğ > soy; t>s and ğ> y common transformations )
Suv/Su = water in other Turkish dialects.(from tuğ/toğ > suğ, suğ > suv; from tu > su)
Süt = Milk
Sağ = To milk; to be alive
Doy = To feel full after eating, adequate eating
Ye = Eat
Doğum = Birth
Doğu = East (where the sun is born)
Ut / Ud = Fire (I had shown that it also meant "sun" in the past).
Sumerian "su4" (suğ) ‘to grow, to multiply’ also used as multiplication symbol in Sumerian math, same as PIE "su" to give birth (Indo-European and Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a proto-Language and Proto Culture by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze, Vjaceslav V. Ivanov).
Sumerian "Sag" (head) is related to birth (Sumerian sağ du = to beget), it could be because baby's head comes out first during birth, as seen in "Ugu" which means both birth and skull. Sumerian "Sag" is directly related to Turkish "doğ" (birth) and "suv" (water). "Su" means water in most Turkish dialects except Yakut/Saka the most divergent of Turkish dialects along with Chuvash. Needless to say, water and birth are physically related. I had already explained the relationship between Sumerian "underground ocean where life comes from" called "abzu"in Sumerian and Turkish "su" water in my book.
Compare with Turkish "tuğ/tu" to give birth (t>s = su/suv), Sumerian "du" as seen above. Hungarian "szul" means birth (info by Peter Revezs) compares favorably with PIE "su" too. And "süt" = "milk" in Turkish.
Also compare Ancient Turkish suv (common ğ>v transformation) in Orhun scripts and "su" "water" with Ivanov and Gamkrelidze's examples including those from non-IE languages like Georgian şvili (son) which can be derived from the above Turkish with the same stems as Turkish "Ogul" (Og+ul=Ogul, meaning son) such as suv+ul > Georgian "şvili". A similar linguistic process is also valid for other Kartvelian languages. Needless to say, this also is a kinship/family marker.
There is more. The -lu/li is used in Turkish Oğlu (son of), Georgian Svili (Son), Hittite Hattusili (in Hittite -li means pertaining to a place, like Californian, Italian etc.) and Sumerian -lu (person, man) as seen in lugal (king). Same suffix/prefix same meaning in Turkish, Kartvelian, Hittite and Sumerian! These examples are from an area ranging from Southern Caucasus - Eastern Anatolia to Mesopotamia. And there are other languages with same -li/il. "Ilk" anyone ?
On another related note, the word "son" ultimately derives from Proto-Indo-European sewH- whose meaning is "to give birth" is quite close to "soğ" (soy) Turkish word for lineage, descent. For example, the word for "son" in Tocharian B is "soy" and Middle French soy (now "soi") oneself.
Etruscan word for daughter is "sec".
See also Etymology of the word "clan", Etruscan "clan", Irish "oglach" and Etymology of the words goat and kid
I'll also add a few words from Japanese that works with above and shows the connection of Japanese words for daughter, family with both Sumerian and Turkish. 一家 ikka (family) and 娘 (musume) (daughter). Already in the Wiktionary article for "musume" we find the Chinese a loan from Turkish ana. But we can easily see in Sumerian mud (to create) and mi woman. With d>s as seen above we obtain "Mus mi". We already see that both "dim" and "mud" (reverse order) mean to create, and dumu, child. Tu > Su in Turkish as seen above. Musu+me=woman create + woman = daughter.
As for "ikko" that'S "ug+gu" family. Again "ug" family and metathesis "gu".(sumerian ugu=birth).
And there is the Navajo word "dóoneʼé" with the same "doğ" stem, meaning family, clan.
Observing the sounds in Sumerian and Turkish words related to birth, kinship, water, sun, and skyIf you look closer, you will find that most basic sounds are used, syllables with one consonant and one vowel.
Addition (agglutination) is used to construct new words.
Consonant sounds regarding "people", "birth", "kinship", "mother", "milk", "water", "sun", "sky" can be grouped just in four consonants:
Many other consonants are derived from these four, like "d" and "s" from "t", or like "g" and "k" from "ğ". And "m-n" is sometimes regarded as one consonant. This would make the list even smaller, 3 consonants. Later in the article, you may see how that relates to other works put forth by linguists.
The consonant "L" which is found in words for "son", "man" "person" (lu/li) is another matter, as I explained in my books.
What does all of the above tell about daughter, milk, and people/family/kinship words in Indo-European languages?Conceptually, these are strongly related words. Can we find a similar situation in Indo-European languages? And better yet, can we also see sound similarities with Sumerian and Turkish as discussed above?
In an important linguistic thread comparing English daughter and Persian dough , user Shannenms says the etymology of Daughter goes back to Sanskrit Dough which means "milking" based on Walter William Skeat and also Thomas Bellot's works and adds that "dough دوغ " in Persian dictionary meant milk in the past.
User Asgaard mentions that the relationship between "daughter" and "milkmaid" was first suggested by Jacob Grimm in "Geschichte der deutschen Sprache". He suggests that English word "dug" which means animal nipple, (and is listed in etymology dictionaries such as Etymonline as of obscure origins, perhaps related to Swedish "dagga", Danish "dægge" "to suckle") derives from the same Sankskrit root while Hungarian "tõgye, tôgy" (udder) and Proto-Celtic "degu" (drink) seem to be related.
At this point I should add that the Turkish word "sağ" (to milk) is related to all of the above words in sound and meaning. Note also, Turkish "Doy" = to be full after eating. Moreover, it also adds to the proof that "t/d > s" sound change is regular in Turkish too. Linguistic progression per Sun language theory regarding this sound change is t > d > s. Hence, Hungarian preserves the oldest "t", while English "dug" and Celtic "degu" have the "d". Turkish has the latest "s". On the other hand "ğ" is the oldest sound and is preserved in Turkish.
User Flaminius tells that Gérard Huet suggests a relationship between Sanskrit "duh" (to milk) to "duhitṛ" (daughter)
And user Mkh correctly connects Persian دوغ (dugh) (anything that mixes to water) to English dough. I should add that adding flour to water makes it look like milk. In fact, I have already shown that many English words are connected to ancient Persian words.
Proto-IE *dheugh- is said to mean "to suck", "to milk" which is related to PIE of daughter which is dʰugh₂tḗr (dʰugh₂+tar)
English word Daugh+ter is connected to milk+er in Sanskrit and milk in Persian.
Old Persian taumā means family. Old Armenian tohm, a word from Persian, and cognates in many IE languages in and around Iran have similar meanings such as tribe, clan, family.
The ultimate root for this word is reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European *tewk- which means germ, seed, sprout, offspring.
Moreover some Germanic, Balto-Slavic, and Celtic words are suggested to descend from this root.
This word is suggested to be the ancestor of many words in Indo-European languages around Iran from Sanskrit to younger Avestan, from Sogdic to Ossetian. See Wiktionary Proto-Iranian táwxma for a full list of languages which is quite impressive!
The word is also found with similar meaning in non-IE languages such as Turkish (tohum) which means seed and directly related to "doğum" which means birth, Elamite (iz-ru-du-uk-ma) and Bashkir Turkish (toqom).
Sanskrit तोक • (toká) means children. The wiktionary entry suggests comparison with Ancient Greek τόκος (tókos, “childbearing”) from Proto-Indo-European *teḱ- whose descendants include τέκνον (téknon, “child”), τέκτων (téktōn, “builder”), τέχνη (tékhnē, “craft”) as well as τοκεύς from the same root with the Ancient Greek suffix -εύς whose etymology is not given in Wiktionary but can easily be constructed via Sun Language Theory from the same root that gives PIE *teḱ-. Needless to say, the suffix which is also added to an ancestor's name is structurally related.
Sanskrit "toja" means "water" and "toka" children, well in line with the water-progeny homonymy found in Sumerian, Uralic, and Turkish.
English verb "do" is clearly related to Sumerian "du" (to build) in sound and meaning. The PIE word for English "do" is dʰeh₁- which is "doğ" in Turkish, to be born.
As seen above the root "doğ" and its derivatives can be found in many languages. And "doğ" can be further explained using its constituants: ud+uğ as seen above.
Proto-Indo European constructions *dheugh- (suckle), dʰugh₂tḗr (dʰugh₂+tar, daughter), *tewk- (to sire, beget), and *teḱ- (germ, seed, sprout, offspring) are fully in line both in sound and meaning with Turkish "doğ/toğ" (ut/ud+uğ) and its Sumerian equivalents!
There is more. The word "uğ" which means people lineage, tribe in Turkish can be seen in Latin "augeo", English "augment" and "eke" which mean "to grow". Per Wiktionary, they derive from PIE "h₂ewg-" which is said to derive from "h₂weg-" which also means the same, "to increase", "to enlarge", akin to "uğ" as seen above. The descendants of those PIE reconstructions are said to be found in all IE languages. I should add that Etruscan "augur" is also related and derives from the same root.
Another PIE construction for words meaning "to produce, to beget, to give birth" is ǵenh₁- whose descendants include Latin gnāscor, nāscor, Greek γίγνομαι (gígnomai) basis for the English word "gene". It can easily be constructed as "Uğ+an+uğ" (people+sky+people), I had already shown in the past.
All of the above examples around "uğ" and "ud" and PIE-Sumerian-Turkish correspondances are only a part of the treatise I have put forth in my books.
Earth and BirthThey sound close but we cannot say they are related at the moment. This needs a lot of digging. Etymology for "earth".
On the other hand, there is one reconstructed PIE word for earth that is most probably related to birth. That would be the PIE word *dhéĝhōm = earth.
It is related to the above IE and PIE words relating to kinship, family birth. It is very close in sound Turkish "doğum" which means "birth".
Think about Sumerian creation myths where the earth sits on top of a body of water and this sound relationship would make conceptual sense. And Sumerian beliefs that humans were created out of mud.
When we look up the Wiktionary we see Latin "humus" (ground, soil) is related to Latin "homo"(uğ+um)=human being, man) and that "humus"(uğ+um+us)=ground derives from PIE dʰéǵʰōm (*dhéĝhōm) exactly like we have seen above: In wiktionary it is analyzed as: *dʰeǵʰ- + *-ōm just like doğ+um above. The very close connection between the words for "man" and "earth" can be seen in Latin language too.
And in Global etymologies by linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, we find a reconstructed "tika" for earth in languages spanning five continents.
Ancient migration information recovered from Ancient genome studiesThe word for father was instrumental in suggesting and forming Indo-European linguistic family. The word for daughter provides a major clue for the location of PIE homeland. My linguistic study is perfectly in line with the The Formation of Human Populations in South and Central Asia and my article Sumerian Origins reconfirmed published shortly after the pre-print of this study in August 2018. West Siberian Hunter Gatherers (WSHG) and Iran Neolithic mixing throughout Iran and Central Asia during the Bronze Age and earlier has been shown with the Naramsimhan et.al. study I have referred to above.
Sumerian language is related to Turkish, Hungarian, Finnish and Dravidian.
Now, there is a twist to all this. Some of the central linguistic correspondances I have shown between Turkish, Sumerian and PIE probably do not derive from WSHG but from a much earlier ANE (Ancient North Eurasians)! We know that both CHG (Caucasian HUnter Gatherers)and Iran Neolithic have ANE ancestry mixed with Dzudzana (a cave in Georgia where two individuals dated to 26K years before present were found). WSHG must have brought Uralic as well, though I use the term Ugur Turkish to cover both Uralic and Turkish.
The key to solve this problem relies on linguistics while genetics may also play a role to assist it. Artificial Intelligence and computer solutions might be checked against Sun Language Theory or in conjunction with it.
Sun Language Theory does a better job compared to Proto-Indo-European construction because it looks at the root sounds and their descendants hence makes it possible to follow them both in time and space. Using this information together with genetics, one can do a better analysis of history and the cognitive as well as linguistic developments in cultures around the world.
Turkish TDK (Turkish Language Institute) founded by Ataturk but after his death run mostly by those who betrayed him, never took interest in his research works, whether to validate or negate his work. Overwhelming majority of the people and academics in Turkey repeat whatever the West tells them to say and they have no interest in history, language or anything related to ancient cultures, especially Ancient Turks.
World languages are connectedIn his blogpost named Related or Similar by Chance? Piotr Gasiorowski challenges etymologies for "mother" put forth in Global etymologies by linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, and refers to Simple combinatorial considerations challenge Ruhlen’s mother tongue theory by Louis-Jean Boë et. al. where the authors show that there are two more global etymologies for mother, "Ana" and "Mama" in addition to "Aja" (My note: should have been Ağa).
As you can see above, "Ama", "Ana" and "Ağa" (Uğ/Og) can all be found in Turkish and Sumerian. Hence the authors' idea that the existence of two other words for mother negate the existence of a mother tongue fails.
Also see: 12,000 years of Patriarchy, Gobeklitepe, Sumer and the Word for Father where I show the relationship between three words for father "abba", "adda" and "ağa".
Now let's look at an important work: M-T pronouns (m,n,t) suggested by Johanna Nichols and David A. Peterson is an important grouping of pronouns over Eurasia, Americas and Africa and holds across language families. It certainly shows a proto-language, though the authors think this is the less likely explanation. Their m-n,t is also found in my list above and there is one missing sound in their list, "ğ" found in Sumerian and Turkish which disappeared in IE languages (Ferdinand Saussure's glottal theory). .
On an another note, late professor of Turcology, Vecihe Hatiboğlu, the only academic to have gone in the footsteps of Ataturk (maybe Osman Nedim Tuna could be added with major reservations) compared favorably Latin and Turkish pronouns, Latin "qu?"/Turkish "ka?" question words, some suffixes like "al" and some words in her 1974 article Turkce'deki eklerin kokeni. I have already shown in my books that the relationship is even deeper and arises from the PIE roots and later formations in Eastern Turkey/Iran area.
Words for animals derive from the same stems relating to people and birth. Ivanov and Gamkrelidze connect words for "pig" and "cat" to "birth" in PIE. I have shown that the words for animals are the same as words relating to people, family etc. Just like we see our pets as part of our family. Like in Sumerian, one can easily see that many words for animals are same as for people: "ur" means both "man" and "dog". Ancient people saw all animals, especially domesticated animals a part of them and even made many of them symbols of gods (from earlier totem animals) for different reasons. In my books, I have provided the linguistic toolbox to come up with words used for animals and this is in line with PIE reconstructions as well. Compare Sumerian "ug" lion", "tillug" elephant, "u" ewe with uğ=people. See a detailed analysis: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus God names are related to word for sun/sky and people/birth.
The transition from matriarchy to patriarchy around the time of Gobeklitepe ( Genetic proof: Gobeklitepe, Shigir Idol, American Pacific Northwest totems are related ) can be followed in language.
Population bottlenecks may or may not have had an effect, it is still early to tell, but if they had an effect in languages, then it should be in Eastern Asia, around Siberia, tens of thousands of years ago. Later male population bottlenecks (around 5000 BC) had linguistic consequences too, but these would not change Sun Language Theory.
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Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
(Click on the image for the answer)
Sun Language TheoryTurkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)