By Mehmet Kurtkaya
Published online on October 10, 2017
EURASIAN MIGRATIONS MAP: ORIGINS OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
This is the map that can help anyone studying linguistics, history, anthropology and haplogroups, in short anyone studing the history of humanity.
At the moment, dates are missing on the map of migrations , but I have listed links to some of the recent major genetical studies done on ancient graves and fossils. I am sure I missed some, at least, tips are more than welcome. I will develop this page and the map further, current version is to show a broad outline of migrations in Eurasia especially towards Europe and the Middle East.
One clear megatrend, paradigm is emerging: the direction of migrations is from East to West throughout history! I did not indicate a few West to East (back) migrations in the Steppes from the Urals towards the Altai as they are very few compared to East-West direction. Morever, if I had listed all migrations, the map would look like one giant arrow from the East to the West!
Migrations originate from Siberia (East Asia) and Central Asia as well as Anatolia (Turkey) and the Middle East (Sumer, Mesopotamia, Assyria). Except the arrival of the very first humans to Europe via Anatolia some 45000 years ago, maybe from Africa, the migrations out of Anatolia happened after humans arrived Anatolia from Central Asia/siberia, hence Anatolia served as both a hub and center of civilizations.
MIGRATIONS INTO EUROPEThere are only two physical routes towards Europe from Asia:
- The southern route via Anatolia (Turkey)
- Northern route via north of the Black Sea, Pontic steppes from the Russian/Ukrainian Steppes (Yamna,Yamnaya culture)
The first modern humans migrated to Europe via both routes some 45000-37000 years ago. The earliest arrival was probably through Anatolia (Turkey) where they have bred to some degree with existing Neanderthal populations. All people outside Africa have 2-5% Neandarthal DNA.
On a side note, I should add that first humans are known to have existed at least 300,000 years ago as recent Moroccon finds show. Out of Africa theory's main competitor is Out of Asia (multiple) human origins theory.
First farmers of Europe migrated from Anatolia (Turkey) 8000-9000 years agoEarly farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans In this major study, the authors state that their study provides the coup de grâce to the notion that farming spread into and across Europe via the dissemination of ideas but without, or with only a limited, migration of people.
This statement is very important because Western take on Sumerian influence on Ancient Greece and Rome is similar: The foundational influence of Sumer on Greco-Roman mythology is known but the West imagines that ideas/beliefs spread without the people! (Most recent studies proved that the Founders of Minoan and Myceneaen came from Anatolia, see below.) From Daily Mail: The new findings suggest Anatolia acted as a hub from which the farming revolution then spread.
They migrated from Kumtepe near Troy (Troas), they were probably also the founders of the legendary city of Troy. Catal Hoyuk in Anatolia, Turkey was a hub for the farming revolution.
Another link on the Early farmers of Europe
An important note: the farmers who migrated to Europe took their family with them and did not interbred much with the hunter gatherers who had migrated some 30000 years before them. They first settled in the Southeastern Europe (Greece, Balkans) before spreading throughout Europe. (On a seemingly unrelated side note: in European DNA there is also an indication of another group who settled in the Caucasus around 25,000 years ago, and were isolated from all other groups.)
FOUNDERS OR MINOAN AND MYCENAEAN GREECE MIGRATED FROM ANATOLIALatest genetic research proves my theory that Gur (Hurrians), probably along with Gat (Hatti people who formed the substratum of the Hittite Empire), were the founders of Ancient Greece:
Founders of Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations migrated from Turkey!
Mycenaean Greeks had 4% to 16% Siberian / Eastern European DNA!
Read the original article from Nature
The above study (2017) was done on grave remains. In 2008, a genetic study that involved populations of Crete and the Near East showed that the country’s neolithic population came to Greece by sea from Anatolia – modern-day Iran, Iraq and Syria – and not from Africa as maintained by US scholar Martin Bernal. Read more about the study at: Minoan DNA results
Founders of Rome, the Etruscans migrated to Central Italy from Anatolia (Turkey)At least part of the Etruscans migrated from Anatolia.
The name Etruscan is originally mentioned in Greek sources as Turs-onoi. and in Latin as Turs-ci -hence the Etruscans- and this word is the basis for the name of the region Tuscany. (Note the extreme similarity of the words Turs and Turs-ci with Turk and Turuk).
Herodotus said that Etruscans had migrated from Lydia (Anatolia / Turkey). In the 20th century, many scholars, except some in Italy, accepted this info based on existing evidence. In the 21st century we can say that this fact is beyond dispute: Robert Stephen Paul Beekes' The Origins of the Etruscans (2003),
DNA Analysis of the people in Tuscany and Western Turkey by Alberto Piazza,
Mitochondrial DNA Variation of Modern Tuscans Supports the Near Eastern Origin of Etruscans, and
The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus (cattle) mitochondrial DNA.
MIGRATIONS FROM SIBERIA and CENTRAL ASIA TOWARDS ANATOLIA, PONTIC STEPPE AND NORTHERN EUROPEThanks to DNA studies done on human remains, migrations to Europe from Siberia is now confirmed as a fact at least since 24,000 BP. There are many other studies I am listing below:
Reconstructing genetic history of Siberian and Northeastern European populations The article states that they uncovered admixtures between Siberians and Eastern European hunter-gatherers from Samara, Karelia, Hungary, and Sweden (from 8000–6600 yr ago); Yamnaya people (5300–4700 yr ago); and modern-day Northeastern Europeans hence the evidence of ancient gene flow from Siberia into Europe.
Russian scientist Anatole Klyosov has written a major paper on the subject of migrations out of Central Asia. Ancient History of the Arbins, Bearers of Haplogroup R1b, from Central Asia to Europe, 16,000 to 1500 Years before Present
SCYTHIAN HISTORY: MIGRATIONS FROM THE ALTAI TO THE URALS 3000 YEARS AGO2017 research:
"During the first millennium BCE, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin." From a recent paper: Migration over the Eurasian Steppe belt carrying East Asian/North Siberian ancestry from the East to the West as far as the Don-Volga region in southern Russia
Another important study: Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians shows migration from the Altai to Pontic region!
XIONG-NU HISTORY: EASTERN HUNS 2000 YEARS AGOhigh similarity between the Xiongnu and contemporary indigenous populations of eastern Central Asia, particularly Mongolian-speaking groups Xiongnu was a confederation of nomadic pastoral tribes (~200 bc–100 ad) that founded the first nomadic empire in Central Asia. According to archeological and historical data, the tribes played a key role in ethnic and cultural processes in Central Asia and adjacent regions of Eurasia.
CELTIC MIGRATIONS INTO EUROPE AND IRELAND FROM ANATOLIA AND YAMNA (NORTH OF BLACK SEA)Two waves of migrations have been identified. Horsemen from the North of Black Sea and Anatolia/Middle East.
Each sample exhibited the Bronze Age-associated Y chromosome lineage R1b-M269, which has been strongly linked with Steppe incursion into Central Europe From the study: "Thus, it is clear that the great wave of genomic change which swept from above the Black Sea into Europe around (Caucasia and Russia-Ukranian steppe continuum) 3000 BC washed all of the way to the northeast shore of its most westerly island"
Irish people descendants of Middle East Farmers Celtic DNA shows
A wrap-up of migrations into Europe in Science Magazine by Ann Gibbons including info on Early Bronze Age men from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppe swept into Europe on horseback about 5000 years ago
MIGRATIONS FROM SIBERIA TO AMERICASPeople from Siberia populated North and South America in one wave of migration accross the Beringia land corridor consisting of ice sheets coverng the ocean, at least 22000 years ago.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (And most of my articles on this website included. This one excluded!)