By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on October 27, 2019
The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
Part II: The words for bee, honeybee across Eurasia, Africa, America and Ocenia show deep and ancient connections.
Part III: Bee Mythology and dual meaning of the word for bee and pure Of bees and humans: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.
Part IV Paleolinguistics honey, bee, licking Of bees and languages: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.
Part V: Pelasgians Identified, Midas, Phrygia -Etruscan connection confirmed Linguistics, Mythology, Archaeology and Genetics combined as usual!
This article must be considered together with The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections
Honey - Mel/Melit
There is a saying in Turkish, something like "let's eat sweet, let's talk sweet" said while eating sweets with other people. This is a local saying, but the same or very similar words for "honey" are curiously spread across different cultures and civilizations. How is that possible?
Two words used for honey and mead have an extremely wide distribution and they are attested in written records since 5000 years ago. Moreover, they may be much older than that because Sumerian written records go only that far back.
It's also very interesting that the words were preserved very well for so long in so many different languages in different language families covering huge parts of Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania.
The root word for honey is considered as "mel" while "melit" is also frequently observed.
The Nostratic Macrofamily: A Study in Distant Linguistic Relationship by Allan R. Bomhard, John C. Kerns we see:
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) "mel" (honey) with Hittite militi and similar words in Anatolian languages such as Palaic, Luwian etc. in addition to Latin "mel", Old Irish "mil", Gothic "milith" all meaning honey and Proto-Afro-Asiatic "mal"proto-East Cushitic malab (honey), Somali malab honey, Ma'a (Tanzanian language) mala (beer) among others. (In Wiktionary PIE mélit)
In Eurasiatic word *mVjLV honey we see:
Proto-Germanic: *miliɵ-, *miliska-, Proto-Altaic: *male, Turkic: *bal, Mongolian: *milaɣa- Tungus-Manchu: *mala Proto uralic: *majδ́V Proto-Dravidian : *māl-, Proto-South Dravidian : *māl-. Japanese Jpn. moro-mi undistilled sake also related.
In Torsten Pedersen's website we see words from Polinesian languages, "meli" is found in Samoan, Tongan, Rarotongan islands, and "mel" (wine, from grapes) in supposedly language isolate Burushaski.
Mead - MedhuMead is an alcoholic drink fermented from honey and water. Fermentation is key in beer and winemaking too.
In Wiktionary PIE medhu is listed as a synonym of "melit" (honey) and this is largely correct, as seen in ancient Indo-European languages records (Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction by Robert Stephen Paul Beekes.
The word for honey, "melit" and alcoholic honey drink "medhu" are related in meaning, and they are close in sound, but distinct.
Just like the word for honey "mel/melit" the word "medhu" has an extremely wide distribution in Eurasia, Africa and Ocenia and preserved itself so well through thousands of year.
In response to a Quora question What Proto-Indo-European words have remained the most intact in modern languages? Samapriya Basu, what he calls "the most widespread (after pronouns and mom/dad words) Indo-European word *médʰu" - a term meaning honey or honey-based alcoholic beverage and provides a list from Celtic to Indo-Iranian and similar words in other language families like Uralic languages Hungarian "mez", Komi: "ма (ma)", and Dravidian languages, then to Chinese, Japanese, Malay and Vietnamese.
I am not the first person who have noticed the extremely wide distribution of these words. There is an online map, on the Spread of the word for 'mead' or 'honey' across Eurasia and the map which is a rough sketch, while not fully inclusive is interesting in that it largely matches ancient migration data obtained from genetic studies.See world languages on a map
There are missing words in these lists, like Etruscan "math" (honey), Akkadian "matku" among others. (Tip by Stig-Ove Madetoja: mead in Swedish "mjöd" and "sima"-honeywine- in Finnish).
Etymology of the word ‘mitsu’ honey and its Central Asian origins suggests a network of languages connecting western and eastern Central Asia. These include the words for “lion” and “honey”.
Korean "beol" (bee), English "bee" and Turkish "bal" (honey) seem connected. (If you would like to know ancient connections between Korean and English Have a look at this expose English-Korean ancient links by linguist William Stoertz)
Old Chinese "mi / mjit", North Caucasian: *miʒʒV ‘sweet’ > e.g. Ingush merza share the same root for the word honey.
One important missing information regarding the distribution of the word, comes from Chadic language across the Sahara desert from West-Central Africa: "Orel & Stolbova connects Semitic with the almost identical Central Chadic *mVtak- ‘sweet’ (1995: 393)" via Prehistoric loan relations by Bjorn, 2017.
How is that possible?
Haplogroup R1b and its subclade R1b- v88 found in Africa (from North Africa to Chad)From: The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections
Modern distribution of Haplogroup R1b
Usually genes do not correlate to languages, but there are exceptions. The further back in time one goes the higher the correlation. There are also many cases where one can rule out certain languages or favor others based on migration and population mixing information received from ancient genome studies.
The important genetic piece of evidence is the connection of Chadic languages to y-haplogroup R1b - v88 as well as to the people in North Africa and the Levant, since these haplogroups are from Asia. This Near Eastern connection establishes a major footstep in connecting Ancient languages and haplogroups/migrations.
R1b is born in Central Asia or Western Asia and its parent R, in Siberia.
Needless to say, I am not saying R1b as a sole responsible. Of course not. Yet, this genetic clade makes it slightly easier to follow the routes of ancient human migrations. Many haplogroups Q,N, R1a, J and others were involved. R1b works as a tracer dye and of course as migrations and population mixings occured so did linguistic changes. Detailed genetic and linguistic comparisons will provide the social, cultural and linguistic changes in ancient societies.
Linguistics information from words for honey - melit and mead - medhuWe may retrieve a lot of information from ancient and modern words used for honey and mead as well as the words for bee. The sound differences between medhu and melit can be very informative as well.
For example Sumerian word for sweet is "lal" hence does not share the root "mel" observed across Eurasia and mid-north Africa. In Sumerian "Mel" means "malt-flour" which is closer to "medhu" (fermented honey drink) in meaning and sound. "Mel" is used for wine from grapes in Burushaki and for other intoxicating drinks in some languages.
Remnants of beer in Gobeklitepe?. Maybe they had a precursor to Octoberfest back then.
As for the ancient linguistic reconstructions and the deep connection of languages, you may use Sun Language Theory which can explain the differences between the words for honey and mead.
(Click to read the article and see full size image)
Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
(Click on the image for the answer)
Sun Language TheoryTurkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
Amazon Kindle -
Amazon Kindle -
Amazon Kindle - Paperback
Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)