By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on November 5, 2019 Updated, November 8, 2019
The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
Part I: It's not only the word for earth that connects world languages. Let's talk sweet :
href="honey-mead.htm">Honey and mead in world languages Part II: The words for bee, honeybee across Eurasia, Africa, America and Ocenia show deep and ancient connections.
Part III: Bee Mythology and dual meaning of the word for bee and pure Of bees and humans: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.
Part V: Pelasgians Identified, Midas, Phrygia -Etruscan connection confirmed Linguistics, Mythology, Archaeology and Genetics combined as usual!
This article must be considered together with The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections
The words for honey and bee are connected to many othersIn the first three articles of the series, we have seen how same or very similar words for mead and honey are spread over five continents and that this goes back to at least 5000 years ago as written records show and that this is further supported by ancient migration data obtained from ancient genomes, specifically information about a population called Ancient North Eurasians.
In the second part, how the word for bee with an "r" in it is strongly related to Turkic languages and how that word means pure in Turkish languages, and its relationship to Indo-European and Sumerian.
In the third article, we have seen mythological and archaeological information supporting the above, going back to the Venus figurines some 35,000 years ago in Europe and Siberia.
How far can we go back in linguistics without written records? Or a better question, how do we go back as far as possible in linguistics, paleolinguistics? Comparative method which is the standart method of linguists has been used to create some proto-Nostratic words which are estimated to be as old as 12,000-15,000 years. In a separate effort, a computer based statistical research study was able to guess 23 words spoken some 15000 years ago.
As remarked earlier the words for mead and honey in Indo-European languages, are among the most widespread after the pronouns and the most basic words for kinship like mother and father. And unlike pronouns, the words for honey, bee and mead are shared across many of the world languages in five continents.
This make the words for honey, bee, mead and related words ideal candidates for long range and ancient language comparisons. This has never been done before. In Nostratic scheme, these words were analyzed like other words and no special importance was given.
And the words for honey are conceptually related to the verbs "to lick", "to suck", "to drink", "to pour" as well as the words like "beehive", "hive", "beeswax", "wax", and also tne words for "alcoholic/fermented drink", "sweet", "good" as well as many other cultural words.
These similarities are observed in many different world languages from English honey (dear), to Arabic "habibi" (beloved, dear), Turkish "balim" (my honey=dear) etc. And this goes way back in time: Sumerian "lal" (honey, sweet) and "lulal" (lu-person, lulal=honeyperson=dear).
Amazing as it may sound, these relations are real and ancient, and many can be seen in Sumerian, Hittite, Akkadian and later Greek, Latin records.
These comparisons yield not only major similarities but also important differences as every language has its own characteristic which is helpful in identifying the process of the formation of new words and new languages.
Take for example the root for honey "mel" which is seen from Hittite to Old Irish, and is closely related to Sanskrit word for honey "medhu" but not the same. Checking the roots, we will see how the word was conceived in different languages including those in the same language families.
Let's check another example: Korean "beol" (bee), French "miel" (honey), Italian "miele" (honey), Mongolian "milağa" (honey), Turkish bal (honey) show cross relations between "honey" and "bee" which should be, as they are intrinsically related as seen in the word "honeybee". Same with South American native people Tupi's "ira" (honey) and "eira" (bee). Bee makes honey.
Paleolinguistics and honey - bee - meadFirst of all we can follow the word in both time and space. Once the root is established a suffix (sometimes a prefix) becomes a language specific information from which we can get a lot of new information.
The word for honey or bee usually starts with "m" or "b". Mel/bal as in Turkish, "medhu" Sanskrit, Beol- bee Korean etc.
Akkadian "matqu" and Dravidian and PIE for honey "medhu" or honey made alcoholic drink.
Let's look at Old Irish "mil" and Sanskrit "medhu" Hittite "melit". We see "t" or "l" added to "me". In Hittite, it is both. Hence the root is "me" and the rest are additions based on cultural/mythological/linguistic relevance.
This was noticed before by American linguist Patrick C. Ryan who critiqued and corrected Bomhard. In his Nostratic Dictionary he connects the word "mel" to Sumerian "eme" (tongue) and the other Nostratic (long-range) words *mel- "to lick" *melay- "licky=sweet" and *mal- "to become full". He uses examples from different languages from Arabic malaqa 'suck (of child)', to Russian molsátb, 'suck, gnaw', from Ugaritic mlH "good, pleasant", Latin melior, 'better', Basque "mihi" tongue and milikatu "to lick". He also connects to *emi from Nostratic *yem- which is the Turkish "em" (to suck), "ye/yemek" to eat/food.
So we can clearly see that the root is either "mi" or "bi", related to words for "tongue" seen in many continents for the words bee and honey.
Some words for bees for comparison, there are many others:
Udmurt: муш (muš)
Native North American
Mi'kmaq: amu anim
Ojibwe: ᐋᒨ (aamoo)
Cree: ᐋᒨ (aamoo)
Plains Cree: ᐊᒧ (amo)
Native South American
Quechua: mapa mama (south america)
Corsican: apa (co), abba (co)
Dorze: ma (Afroasiatic)
Also compare the ancient words for water "apa", father "apa", mother "ama" which are found in many of the ancient and modern languages. An interesting word for water is Akkadian "mu" which is related to word for mother "ummu" and global word for mother "ama/mama". Let us also not forget that the highest god of the Sumerians was "An", the sky god. Since "ama/ana" means mother in Turkish and many other languages we may see mother-sky god sound correspondance and deduct a "mothergoddess" cult.
We can recover ancient people's beliefs in language.
Some of basic words such as to lick, to suck, to drink related to honey "mel/bal"There are many words that are related to the word for honey: mel/bal.
mat to be wet
*ṗVHV to pour, to drink
*mVjrV, fat Fat and sweets, hmmm? Yummy! (but in modern world, not so healthy).
*l[a]pV to lick LVKV to lick Compare Turkish "yala" (from "ğala").
The action of licking is related to the action of the tongue in making the "l" sound as it is based on the sound made during licking. Even drinking has the same sound, in Turkish "lık lık" or "lıkır lıkır" as the sound of drinking is used in conjunction with the word to drink "iç". The words "liquor" and "liquid" are all related.
The sound correspondance of "l" to licking can be seen in "m": baby's suckling mother's breast. Hence Turkish "meme" breast seen in "mammalian" and "ana/ama" mother, etc. They are all related around the sound "m". Turkish has the best match as I have explained in my Sun Language Theory proven book. M-T pronouns (m,n,t) suggested by Johanna Nichols and David A. Peterson is an important grouping of pronouns over Eurasia, Americas and Africa and holds across language families. Turkish first person pronoun "men" incorporates both.
There is even more: Turkish word for mother mother "ana" derives from "ama". Even when there are no records I showed that it was "ama" before "ana" (in his Sumerian origins article Kenanidis also suggested it was "ama" before being "ana"). Both are nasal sounds and in the Johanna Nichols and David A. Peterson article they are conflated as one to "m" as in m-t pronouns. M and N are used as I and you in many American Native tribes grouped as Amerindian by Greenberg. It is extremely important to compare Eurasian languages including Turkish to Native American languages because they are separated by probably 12,000 years though sea travels after the disappearance of the Bering Land Bridge by rising sea levels may have continued.
Proto-Nostratic emi, to suck compare to Turkish "em" to suck! Compare Sumerian eme=tongue and nurse ("wet nurse"), emegir=Sumerian language (tongue of the land).
Some other related words: hive, cave, saliva, swallow, Latin apis (bee), French bouche (mouth) and mouche (fly)English hive, Turkish kova (bucket), Turkish kovan (beehive), Basque kofoin (beehive), Spanish cueva (cave) are connected.
Honeycomb is formed through adding honey and comb. Comb is said to derive from "from Proto-Indo-European *ǵómbʰ- (“to pierce, gnaw through”), compare Tocharian B keme" Not included in the Wiktionary list, Turkish "kemir" (to gnaw). And more importantly keme is related to "em" to suck, hence "kemir" goes to an ancetral root and not a borrowing, it is uğ+em+er.
English word "saliva" derives from Latin "saliva" meaning the same. Greek has a similar word and both are listed as of unknown origins. Turkish word "salya" means "saliva". Turkish "saluğa" becomes Turkish "salya", and Latin and English saliva. Swallow is said to derive from proto-Indo-European "swel" which would be written in Turkish as "suğal" compare suğal to saluğa (saliva).
Compare Mongolian milağa and Italian miele, a similar situation is valid as above, though instead of the common ğ > v transformation, we see the omission of "ğ" which is also a regular sound change.
Latin "apis", the word for bee is also listed as of unknown origins. In Wiktionary "apis" article we see:
"From Middle High German imbe (“bee; swarm of bees”), from Old High German imbi (“swarm of bees”), from Proto-Germanic *imbijaz. Cognate with Dutch imme."
As you can see both the German and DUtch words for swarm of bees can be found in many languages including South American Native Quechua.
How is that possible?
The ancestors of Siberians, Native Americans, Indo-Europeans, Turks, uralics were living in Siberia as part of ancient North Eurasian people.
Latin apis, Latin bos, greek bous (ox) derive from the same roots though they follow different paths.
French bouche (mouth), mouche (fly) don't seem connected other than sounding very similar but the connection can be found in Udmurt, a Uralic language "muš", same sound as French word "mouche" (fly) and means "bee". Another example how bee-honey-licking and by extension mouth are connected. Hence we can now safely connect the words in French for mouth and fly however unrelated they may seem in meaning.
French word bouche derives from Latin word "bucca" which is listed as another Latin word of uncertain etymology. It is actually very easy.
Latin "Bucca" (mouth) is from "buğa" which is the same as "bağ" the original of the Proto-Nostratic *bay 'honey, bee' (Proto-Nostratic baya root of bee ) "B" is related to "M" in mouth for some languages, and in Turkish "op" (p equivalent to b) means to kiss. m>b is a major sound change in Turkish. Akkadian word for honey "matku" and Turkish "petek" honeycomb are another example of the m > b transformation. Compare Georgian "putkari"
You might say English word "honey" does not fit in there. Well, it is suggested to derive from "k'an" which has a smaller distribution compared to "m/b words"
kun / kan bee,honey The word honey also has a correspondant in Turkish and Altaic and as far down as Vietnam.
Most of what you see here, can be constructed with the information from my books. Moreover, the rules are applicable to many other words.
Continue to Part V: Pelasgians Identified, Midas, Phrygia -Etruscan connection confirmed Linguistics, Mythology, Archaeology and Genetics combined as usual!
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Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
(Click on the image for the answer)
Sun Language TheoryTurkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)