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Etymology of the word Horse, Indo-European, Turkish, Sumerian language comparisons

By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on November 7, 2018

For Latin, Greek the root words for horse and ox are similar!

The words used for "horse" seem different in languages within Indo-European family as well as other languages and their etymology seem to diverge from each other.

Wiktionary has the following etymology for the Latin word for horse, equus:

From Proto-Italic *ekwos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos (“horse”). Cognate with Ancient Greek ἵππος (híppos), Sanskrit अश्व (áśva), Persian اسب‎ (æsb), Old Armenian էշ (ēš, “donkey”), Tocharian B yakwe, Gaulish epos.

Latin word "equus" is quite similar to the word ""ox and to the proto-indo-european construction of the word as -uks. This similarity has a logical basis. The formation of this word is similar to the formation of the word ox: Bull cult and the word for Ox, Cow and Taurus

We can easily see Uğğu+us as the original form. Uğğus > Ekğuus. Ukku (derived from Uğğu), the Hurrian cult center in southeast Turkey around 2000 BC onwards. Karen Radner suggests Ukku was located in what is today modern Hakkari, bordering Iran and the Urmia basin. This is the area where Etruscans migrated from towards Italy.

We can reconfirm the derivation of this word by looking at the Greek word for horse: "Hippos". That would be Uğ+Uğğu+Us (or Ug+uggu+us) equivalent of Uğ+Uppu+Us per p-g sound change to occur in Sumerian Turkish!

Uğ+Uppu+Us > ğuppus > hippos

Hence both Latin and the Greek words derive from the same root and follow sound change rules established in Sumerian!

Evidence for Indo-European - Hurrian relationship includes terms related to horse and horse riding. As I have said previously this is the area, Etruscans and Mycenaeans departed from. Moreover Minoan Greeks also have ancestry from this same region.

Horse in Sumerian

Dusu means equid and Sisi means horse. Both have -su as ending which derive from Tu/Ti as T > S. However unrelated it may seem, thsi relates to the derivation

"At" is the Turkish word for horse.

Horse in English

Wiktionary suggests this.

From Middle English horse, hors, from Old English hors (“horse”), metathesis from Proto-Germanic *hrussą (“horse”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥sos (“horse”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱers- (“to run”). Doublet of course, courier, current.

Proto-Indo-European would be kur+us hence mountain/land + us, Indo-European ending also based on Sumerian.

It may even derived from horde, ordu which means army in Turkish and has a Sumerian equivalent in Sumerian god of war Ninurta = Nin + Urta.

Caballo in Spanish

It derives from Latin which in turn derives from another language. Wiktionary has interesting proposals on this and marks it as disputed. There maybe another derivation not listed on Wiktionary.

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