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Trace civilizations through language and etymologies: Daughter, milk, family - Water, father,mother - Ox, Cow, Taurus - Foot, leg - Ward, guard and many more...

PART VII Etymology of the words for cage in Turkish, English capture, Latin capio, Hungarian and Turkish kap

By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on November 13, 2019

The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages

Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan

Earth in world languages connect five continents

Part I: It's not only the word for earth that connects world languages. Let's talk sweet : Honey and mead in world languages

Part III: Bee Mythology and dual meaning of the word for bee and pure Of bees and humans: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.

Part IV Paleolinguistics honey, bee, licking Of bees and languages: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.

Part V: Pelasgians Identified, Midas, Phrygia -Etruscan connection confirmed Linguistics, Mythology, Archaeology and Genetics combined as usual!

PART VI Beekeeping and bee related words From the Altai to Kura -Araxes Beekeeping and bee related words

This article must be considered together with The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections

Turkish, Arabic, Aramaic word for cage: kafes

Let us explore the history of an important word in the history of civilizations and its origins using Wiktionary. Turkish word for cage is "kafes" and Wiktionary says that it is:

"From Ottoman Turkish قفس‎ (kafes), from Persian قفس‎ (qafas), from Arabic قَفَص‎ (qafaṣ)."

The above is the universally accepted etymology among academics in Turkey and the West, and the word is listed as such in dictionaries.

Let's continue with our inquiry and see where the Arabic word قَفَص‎ (qafaṣ/kafas) comes from, we check Wiktionary again. The word means cage, birdcage, basket identical to the Turkish word in sound and meaning. Moreover its origin is listed as:

"From Aramaic קוּפְסָא‎ (qūp̄ṣā) /‎ ܩܰܦܣܳܐ‎ (qap̄ṣā, “cage”), from Ancient Greek κάψος (kápsos) or Latin capsus."

Aramaic word "kupsa" does not have a Wiktionary page but the classical Syriac word "kafsa" ܩܦܣܐ does have a page where we see that the word means "basket, cage, birdcage, enclosure" and its origin as:

From Ancient Greek κάψος (kápsos) or Latin capsus.

Turkish, Arabic, Syriac, Aramaic, Hindi words who have identical meanings and almost identical sounds are said to derive from Greek and Latin words.

The most recent ancient genome study "History of Italy the last 10,000 years" Ancient Rome: A genetic crossroads of Europe and the Mediterranean by Antonio has a different story to tell. It has been found that Imperial Rome has seen a huge migration from East Medirranean/Near East which I think is a foundational influence even though the authors don't seem to say so. The majority of the people in Imperial Rome has ancestry in the Near East.

Let's continue with our short linguistic inquiry.

Latin word "capio" meaning "to seize / to capture"

Neither Ancient Greek κάψος (kápsos) nor Latin (capsus) has a Wiktionary page, but we can find the meaning of the Latin word "capsus" in Wİktionary entry for Italian word "casso" meaning hollow where we see it means “the body of a carriage” and is compared to another Latin word "capsa" (box).

Turkish/Arabic/Syriac/Aramic word "kafes/Kapsa" meaning "cage/birdcage" is compared to Latin "capsa" meaning box not only in meaning but also in sound!

The word for cage with the root "cap/kap" had the same meaning and very similar sound from India to Spain more than 2000 years ago. Both words Latin "cap" and Turkish "kap" have the same sound, in Latin it is written with a "c", instead of a "k".

We may confirm the direction of the migration of the word as from East to West only on linguistic grounds, yet we have a reconfirmation thanks to the latest ancient genome study!

Latin word for box "capsa" comes from Latin root capiō (“capture, seize, take”) which is also the root of the English word "capture"!

Did I capture your attention?

Let's continue with our inquiry. Latin word capio is said to be cognate with the English word "have" and is said to descend from a reconstructed proto-Indo-European root kap which is said to mean "to seize, to hold" and is listed in Wİktionary as:

"Possibly of substrate origin, as evidenced by the a-grade[3]"

So the Latin word capio "to seize/to hold" which has descendants in English such as the word "capture" is from a foreign root "kap".

Turkish word "kap" means "to catch, to seize".

Is this is by chance?

A very ancient root word "kap" to catch, to seize

While searching for a proto-Nostratic root for this word on the internet, I came across an interesting page.

In his work Nostratic Languages, late Hungarian author Csaba Varga remarks that the word for "beehive" in Hungarian "kaptar" has the stem "kap". He indicates that "kap" means to catch. He gives many examples from Hungarian, some in the physical sense like KAPó (catcher, receiver) but many others in abstract meanings such as "KAPisgál (begins to grasp it)", "KÉPesség (ability)", "KAPós (much in request)", KAPzsi (greedy) and in English like "CAPable of something", "CAPitalist catches the money" etc.

And he remarks that the root goes to the Stone Age and is also used in Latin "capio" (catch, seize) and other languages.

These are very sound observations. Now we know how close Hungarians and Turks were and how well both languages compare to Sumerian. See Hungarian, Sumerian, Turkish relationship for starters.

We see a similar situation here, Turkish "kap" is shared with Hungarian.

Kap is a very basic word whose derivatives include kapan (trap), kovan (beehive), kap (bowl), and verb" kapa(t)" (to close) and others that have this most basic meanings echoed similarly in many other languages.

Late Russian linguist Sergei Starostin's database Eurasiatic root "kap" (meaning to grasp) which is is shared across languages and language families across Eurasia and Africa: Altaic, Uralic, Indo-European, Afroasiatic, Dravidian, Sino Tibetan. It is very clear from the list that Turkish word "kap" (catch, seize) is the only possible source for the Proto-Indo-European word "kap" (seize) which is known to have come from a substrate/another language!

How do we know for sure? Let's look at the word in language families that share it:

Eurasiatic : *ḳaṗV
Altaic: *k`ap`V
Indo-European: *kap- (cf. also *ghab-)
Uralic: *kappV (Szin. 35)
Dravidian: *kav-
Afroasiatic : *ḳVb- (IS, GE)
Sino-Caucasian : ST *g(h)V̆p 'seize with claws'

The word "kap" is an Eastern word as clearly seen with its connection to Altaic and Sino-Tibetan languages. Moreover, Altaic word (*k`ap`V) most closely matches both Eurasiatic (*ḳaṗV) and Indo-European (*kap-) reconstructions. Indo-European speakers have been in contact with the Turks and genetic studies show ancient migrations from the Siberia/Central Asia to Europe in the last 15,000 years! There are in fact waves of migrations that are known. Furthermore Europeans have ancestry in Central Asia and Siberia. So of all the language groups in the list only Altaic matches all the genetic, linguistic and historical data.

So the Proto-Indo-European word "kap" is Turkish "kap" identical in sound and meaning from which English, Latin and other related Indo-European words descend from.

Per Sun Language Theory it is not hard to see that English "hive" and Turkish "kovan" (beehive) are from that same root. And there are other words related to this root.

However, if we look to Sumerian language we find other words, among them "dab" (to seize) who have derivatives like harness, strap etc. However, it is close but not the same as "kap", and there is one explanation for that!

I'll give you a hint, Latin word for "bee" is Apis, and similar words exist in world languages including Basque.

By the way, Csaba Varga has caught another interesting word derived from "kap", English word cop used for, well, cops!

I will continue this series which I started with Part I: It's not only the word for earth that connects world languages. Let's talk sweet : Honey and mead in world languages

Spread of Languages
(Click to read the article and see full size image)

Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more


etruscan sumerian (Click on the image for the answer)

Sun Language Theory

Turkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.

After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.

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