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Etymology of foot in world languages and English, Turkish comparison

By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on September 12, 2019, Updated September 15, 2019

PART V: Is it the Caucasus mountains or the Taurus / Zagros ? Indo-European Homeland Proven!

PART IV: English, Greek, Latin and other Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish

PART III: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus

PART II: Incontrovertible proof: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish.

PART I: Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans

- Major genetics news (March 2019) from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles on the origin of Indo-European languages! The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J.

Foot and Ayak

English word foot and common Turkish word Ayak (spelled I+ock or Aiock) are not only cognates but derive from the same root.

You may immediately reject this as they simply sound too different. Well, let's research further.

It is established that Turkish word "Ayak" derives from "Adak" (d >y is a frequent occurence ln Oguz Turkish) and its oldest version can be found in one of the most ancient Turkish dialects, in Yakut/Saha as "atah" or "atak".

Now let's compare English "foot" and Yakut "atah". Still not much in common except the "t" sound, one in the end and the other at the at the beginning of the word.

In Global etymologies linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, suggested two words for leg and foot in language families across five continents:

TEKU is constructed as a global word for "leg, foot". Here I present only one example from each of the language families in their list :

Niger-Congo: Konyagi -tak ‘heel,’
Nilo-Saharan: Proto-Kuliak *tak’a ‘foot
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: Male toki ‘leg,’
Dravidian: Proto-Central Dravidian *t¯ak ‘to walk
Proto-East Caucasian *t’wehwV
Na-Dene: Proto-Eyak-Athabaskan *t’ax ∼ *t’ah ‘foot.’
Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian tok˘ana ‘foot’
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Mandan dok’a ‘leg'

TSAKU ‘leg, foot’ variants are found in Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic, Indo-European, Uralic, Chucki-Kamtchatkan, Caucasian, Burushaki, Sino-Tibetan, Indo-Pacific, Amerind, Austroasiatic

Since t > ts transformation is known from Mesopotamian records we can say that the two, "Teku" and "Tsaku" are related.

And as a side note, TIKA is suggested for ‘earth’ which seems to be conceptually related.

However we cannot find Turkish "atak / atah" or Proto-Indo-European "-ped" in their list in addition to others missing from the list. Certainly Turkish word should be in that list as it perfectly matches "*tak" in Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Dravidian, Na-Dene, Indo-Pacific and Amerind.

Wiktionary for foot Old English fot "foot," from Proto-Germanic *fōts (source also of Old Frisian fot, Old Saxon fot, Old Norse fotr, Danish fod, Swedish fot, Dutch voet, Old High German fuoz, German Fuß, Gothic fotus "foot"), from PIE root *ped- "foot."

In What is the origin of the word foot Ravi Sivan connects it withe the Tamil words "paadham" (foot) and "paadhai" (path).

Quite interesting as Tamil is a Dravidian language and not Indo-European (IE) but it matches the PIE -ped.

Let's look at Sumerian and we find "bad" foot or leg of a furniture. That is not an IE language either and it also matches with PIE "-ped" as b>p is a very well established transformation. Peter Revesz had shown that Sumerian Contains Dravidian and Uralic Substrates Associated with the Emegir and Emesal Dialects.

So the global etymologies are way bigger and even more widespread for "foot". Still the problem persists, how to connect "atak" to PIE, Sumerian, Dravidian "-ped/-bad". The common sound is the "t/d" sound and we already know t>d change.

Let's look closer to Turkish "atak". It is formed of two syllables at+ak per additive property of the language. "At" is the root.

At= To throw, horse

Atim/Adim= Step (at+im)

Adim at= Make a step (literally, "throw a step" in Turkish)

Atak= Attack (in addition to foot) formed through at+ak.

Ak= flow Turkish. In Sumerian it means to do as in "act" which is the reverse order metathesis for "atak" (Atak > Akat > Akt/Act)

In Sumerian "Atuku" means power.

The root "at" is clearly related to action as throw, horse, foot and attack are clearly related. The ending "ak" is derived from "Ağ", we know it because we have the two forms "atak" and "atah" and in ancient Turkish there is no "h" they both derive from "ğ" as in ğ >h or ğ>g>k. Ağa means father and lead, leader in both Sumerian and Turkish. Another Turkish word for father is Apa and Sumerian "abba".

We can now construct both roots using this information:

Apa+at > Apaat or maybe Ap+at > Apat. The initial vowel drops as we have seen in many other cases including father, hence we have -pat which is equivalent to PIE -pef and Sumerian bad.

We can also see easly how the word "path" is formed: ap+atah > patha > path.

This is not a single isolated case. I had already shown in "Water, Father, Mother" that Apa - Ağa equivalence establishes water-father homophony. This p -q/k corresponds is also the basis for p-Celtic and q-Celtic.

In Turkish "bacak" (leg) seems derived from "adak" (foot) through d>c (sounds j) though this needs further research. But from Yakut Turkish we have a firm case, "but" (ub+ut> but) means "leg" and is cognate with IE "-ped". In common Turkish "but" means the leg of an animal, usually sheep. And English "butt" seems closely related.

Tamil word for foot "paadham" as seen above is a good example that shows one suffix and one prefix in action:

"Apa+adah+am" = "paadham". Tamil and Turkish are related to each other and both to Sumerian, this has been already suggested by scholars.

"Tek-" and "Tep-" are roots for many words like kicking (tekme), jumping (tepinme), walking (in the expression "yol tepmek" = walk on a path). So movement with feet is very clear in all of the above and with all showing a root "at" and with the -p and -k suffix. Though, -p and -k is also seen both as a prefix and a suffix to show depths or sinking:

Turkish "Dip" = "Bottom" in English.

Turkish "Bat" = English "sink" (compare Turkish "bat" and "bot" in bottom, and a whole series regarding foot, movement etc. with -bat/-ped)

English "Deep" is different than the Turkish "dip" because it would be like "digip" in Turkish with g not pronounced. Hence the verb dig.

Compare English "Hill" and German "Hugel". Where does this "g" come from?

And then there is Turkish "tepe/depe" (hill) I compare to English "top" and Native American "tepee" conical tent, Mayan tepek(hill).

And -k is also used instead of -p: Turkish "Dik" means vertical which is related to Latin "verticus" with the same meaning. Hasan Kizilcik suggests Turkish ti- as root for standing up on foot

At all times we can see "at" or its metathesis "ta" in words denoting movement and especially related to movement with feet. Let us not forget that the fire rises up towards the sun/sky. And the word for fire in Turkish is "ot/od" and also is a root for dawn (=Tan). Sumerian root for sun is "ut" and Turkish word for mountain "tağ/dağ/tau" has this "t" stem per Sun Language Theory.

Sumerian "til" means totem pople and " to live", "namtil"=life.

All of the above can be checked with genetic data for migrations and population mixings and details and information not possible to derive from genetics can be established. Moreover, in places and times from which we have no written records we can still "see" the formation of languages including Indo-European languages.

And totally different sounding English "foot" and Turkish "ayak" are actually from the same root language. Moreover, the word for "foot" are connected around the world in accross many languages go to one root sound "at" and one prefix "ap" or one suffix "ak".

Spread of Languages
(Click to read the article and see full size image)

Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more


etruscan sumerian (Click on the image for the answer)

Sun Language Theory

Turkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.

After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.

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