By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on May 17, 2019
12,000 years of Patriarchy, Gobeklitepe, Sumer and the Word for FatherThe close relationship between agricultural societies and patriarchy is well established in anthropology. (For example, see: The origins of Patriarchy).
I have suggested that it may go further back in time, and Gobeklitepe, the earliest known ritual center for a large group of hunter gatherer tribes, offers some clues.
One very interesting article by Gobeklitepe archaeologist Oliver Dietrich on Göbeklitepe shows evidence of a hierarchy of anthropomorphic depictions: Losing your head at Gobeklitepe. Another article from the same author, and Klaus Schmidt the late archaeologist who discovered Gobeklitepe, A short note on a new figurine type from Gobeklitepe has this important quote:
"...The other important characteristic of the depiction is the prominent erect phallus. Göbekli Tepe´s iconography is generally nearly exclusively male (e.g.Dietrich and Notroff 2015: 85), and the phallus features prominently in several depictions of animals and humans. For example, a headless ithyphallic body is depicted on Pillar 43 amongst birds, snakes and a large scorpion (Schmidt 2006)..."
These results hint at the early beginnings of a patriarchal society.
Gobeklitepe also bears the marks of social stratification and, even if it was not a class-society, it hints at the start of an evolution towards class society. The organization of hundreds of people to move one of these stone slabs, the workmanship needed on the statues suggest division of labor and some form of social stratification.
The Bronze Age starting around 3000 BC in the Near East is the era when patriarchy became the dominant social hierarchy form across Eurasia. The Bronze Age marks the start of the spreading of Indo-European languages and Indo-European and Uralic mythologies feature Sky Father as the central character of their religion.
The beginnings of the Bronze Age, also mark the rise of the first developped civilization of humanity from which we have the earliest written records.
Sumer was a patriarchal society, even tough women had important roles.
Patriarchal society and the oldest known words for fatherObviously, one of the most important words in a patriarchal society is the word for father. And the oldest words used for father can be found in Sumerian cuneiform texts.
Let's now look at the word "father" in Sumerian Language, by using Sumerian - English dictionary at University of Pennsylvania.
We find three words used for father starting with the records from Early Dynastic IIIb (ED IIIb) period, around 2500 BC:
They are among the simplest sounds with one consonant (d,b or y) and a vowel "a".
All three words can be found exact or very similar meanings and sounds in Turkish: Ata/dede (father, grandfather), Baba (father) and Ağa (feudal lord, tribal leader, father). Sumerian Aya and Turkish Ağa are related by the known simple sound transformation observed in Turkish from Beğ to Bey.
Not only these words are all almost exactly similar after 5000 years, but their function is still preserved in society. Ata is used as in Ataturk, father of the Turks. Ağa is still used in Eastern Turkey as feudal land lord, tribal leader.
While some people may try to downplay the similarities by suggesting their near-universality with their derivation from baby sounds, that would be absolutely incorrect because there is no other language in the world which shows this kind of near-perfect similarity and preservation for all three words!
Moreover, the third word "aya" is very different from the two others Moreover, Aya/Ağa does NOT derive from baby sounds and it has widespread Turkish and Uralic counterparts not found in other languages (see below).
While these three words do still exist in both Indo-European and Uralic and other ancient languages such as Basque in one form or another, the centrality of all three in Turkish shows its closeness to Sumerian. In that regard, only Turkish satisfies this criteria. The fact that Parpola found most matches with the Turkish language speaks volumes, but Uralic connection is also obvious. Aya, or aij, aija as Parpola notes using Finnic is an obvious indicator of Uralic especially Finnish and Hungarian relationship. Since that we now know thanks to genetics studies of the last two years that the original homeland of the Uralic people was the same as the Turks, Siberia, the similarities are now genetically confirmed. For more, see Uralic and Turkish !
Origins of the English word DadEtymoogy of the English word Dad from Wiktionary
"From Middle English dadd, dadde, of uncertain origin. Possibly related to Low German detta (“grandfather”). Possibly from a metathetic variation of unrecorded Old English *ætta, *atta (“father”), from Proto-Germanic *attô ("father, forefather"; whence also North Frisian ate, aatj, taatje, tääte (“father; dad”), Cimbrian tatta (“dad”)), from Proto-Indo-European *átta (“father”), whence Sanskrit तत (tata, “father”); or perhaps of Celtic origin, compare Welsh and Breton tad, Old Irish data; and possibly related to Russian дя́дя (djádja, “uncle”) and/or Russian де́душка (déduška, “grandfather”)."
Etymonline for Dad "From child's speech, nearly universal and probably prehistoric (compare Welsh tad, Irish daid, Lithuanian tėtė, Sanskrit tatah, Czech tata, Latin tata "father," Greek tata, used by youths to their elders)."
Proto-Indo-European word for father is "atta" which is the same as the Sumerian word "adda".
In Turkish "Dede" is used for grandfather but also as ancestor, leader as in leader of Alevi / Alewites. It may have also used for father in the past too as the Sumerian word suggest. Dede Korkut also known as Ata Korkut shows the equivalence of Dede and Ata as the words for ancestor.
For the word dede, there is a recent genetic explanation too. Many Early East Germanic (Eastern Goth / Ostrogoth, Gepid) Noble Women from 500 AD were Turks from Central Asia: East Germanic DNA in Bavaria published in March 2018. The study is about the period of the Hun invasions of Europe. Huns were mostly Turkish mixed with Mongolian, Hungarian and other tribes.
Genetic relationship between German and Turkish words can be connected to much earlier periods, to Sumerian times but the above is a recent connection that genetically supports the word correspondance for "dad/dede" and its variations to Turkish.
How to connect linguistics and ancient genetics studies with the Words/Sounds used for fatheradda
They are among the simplest sounds with one consonant (d,b or y) and a vowel "a".
t/d and b are both plosives. They are generally known to have derived from baby sounds, like "pa" and "da". For words like mother and father, I had suggested that babies taught their parents how to speak.
The fact that it derives from baby sound however does not explain the similarity of the words for father accross languages. Not only there are also other words used for father but there is no guarantee that a culture would derive the sound for father or mother from baby's sounds. Hence the similarity of the words for father is a very important cultural indicator in patriarchal societies, and an indication towards common origins of languages.
It may indicate the merging of cultures, replacement of cultures, migrations of people etc. Hence genetic results and the words for father can indicate at least to some extent a close linguistic-genetic relationship.
While t/d and b (see: father, vater, pitar) are plosives and probably derived from baby sounds, the ğ/j/y is a totally different adult sound. And that sound can be traced to Siberia, to Turkish and to a lesser extent to Uralic languages.
Finnish Sky God Ukko / Äijä, the word for father in Finnish, Sami, Udmurt and HungarianUkko, or Äijä or Äijo, parallel to Uku in Estonian mythology, is the god of the sky, weather, harvest, and thunder in Finnish mythology. It is the equivalent of Greek Zeus, Germanic Thor in Finnish mythology.
The word Aija, is used for father as in Sky Father in Indo-European languages. What's more, linguistically there is one explnation that connects Aija to Ukko: the consonant "ğ".
Uğğo > Ukko
Uğğo > Ağğa >Aija
The consort of Ukko is Akka and this supports the above explanation. "ğ" is known to evolve to a "y" or a "k" or an "h" or disappear.
In the seminal paper by famed Finnish Assyriogist Simo Parpola on Sumerian Uralic word comparison results presented in 2007, to the World Assyriology Congress in Moscow, Parpola shows the "the homophony between a, aj "water" and aj, aja "father" in Sumerian, and jää, jäj and äj, äijä in Uralic". That's a major remark and I have shown that this applies to Indo-European languages as well: See Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish.
Let see Wiktionary article for äijä shows that the word means "old man" in Finnic, *äijä, from proto finnic. Other Uralic languages Udmurt "ajy", Sami "addja", Hungarian "Atya" all have the same meaning: father.
In Sami and Hungarian the word "ada/ata", another for father, preceeds aija/aya. We can see a similar situation for Luwian, an ancient Indo-European language in Anatolia: tad and tadi/ya. Interestingly the word for grandfather is "huha". That h sound is very close to ğ, and ğ is the only sound that can evolve both ways, to h and y.
Note the "ja" sound in Frisian, Russian, attached to tata which is also found in Hungarian, Basque (aito), Luwian (tatya) etc all can be derived from Sumerian by adding "adda" and "aja" or "ad" and "aja". Hence not only these words trancend accross languages but also their derivation by addition/agglutination a freature of Sumerian/Turkish/Finnish/Hungarian does too.
Hittite words for father are Atta and Abu (from Akkadian/Afroasiatic).
Elamite whose written records almost as old as the Sumerian have these words: for father atta/adda and for mother amma same as Sumerian. Atta and Adda were interchangeable in Elamite too, hence T>D change/equivalence even 4500 years ago.
Basque words for father aito, and Japanese otto / ottosan are obviously related.
The words for father and Sun LanguageNote that in Sumerian, "ad" is also used along with "adda" for father (see adda), and "ud" means sun in Sumerian, "od" means fire in Turkish! Patriarchy is connected to religion and sun worship as suggested by Ataturk's Sun Language Theory that I have proven. Kings and priests that governed these ancient theocratic slave societies represented gods, it is of no wander that the sounds used for sun and father correspond in a near perfect way. A similar situation can be found in sky goddesses as Hittite "anna" Sumerian "ama" used for mother and Sumerian "An" the word for sky and sky god.
There is only one word for mother in Sumerian: "ama". In Hittite it is "anna". Both "m" and "n" are nasal sounds and can be pronounced even with the mouth closed. In Hittite "mah" is used for mothergoddess, can be contructed with two Sumerian words, mother "ama", and lead "a ağ" ama+ağ > amağ > amah > mah.
Let us also remember that Sumerian word for god Dingir was used as an evidence of the Turkish origins of the Sumerian civilization in the 1860s, by Edward Hincks and other Sumerian scholars of the time. Tengri is used only in Turkish, Mongolian, Hungarian and Sumerian civilizations throughout the history fo the world.
The words "ego", "I have", "Ich habe" and others are connected to Ağa/Father/Feudal lordThe words "ego", "I have", "Ich habe" and others are connected to Ağa/Father/Feudal lord. Details can be found in English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages
Patriarchy article in Wikipedia correctly includes the following: "Marxist theory, as articulated mainly by Friedrich Engels, assigns the origin of patriarchy to the emergence of private property". The connection of private property, ego, "I have" to the word "ağa/ağğa" feudal lord/father can be seen in language too, in English language, no less.
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Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)