Freedom and Liberty is my Character — Ataturk
Sun Language theory and Turkish History Thesis
Ama-gi is the sign of freedom from slavery, following the first revolution in human history during Ur Kagan's (Urukagina) rule 2400BC
Ataturk has founded the first and still the only Sumerology department in the world!
EXPLORING THE ROOTS OF MODERN CIVILIZATION: Sumerian and its relation to Gobeklitepe, Hurrian, Egyptian, Etruscan, Greek, Roman, Scythian, and other civilizations. Minoan Linear A , Origins of Indo-European Languages, Archaeogenetics and the birth of human language, The oldest language in Europe: Basque

Scythian, Scyth are UzKut / Sukut, union of Turkish Uz (Uguz/Oguz) and Kut (Ugut/Ogut), Indo-Europeans (Uz > Su) known from Mesopotamian Cuneiform Records. They are the ancestor of the Scots in the British Isles

By Mehmet Kurtkaya, First Published on January 3, 2018 Updated May 5, 2019

Scythians: Uz+Kut=Uzkut > Su+Kut=Sukut > Scyth, (Su is the Indo-Europeanization marker)

Major February 2019 Update with ancient genome study results published in October 2018. "All Pontic Caspian Iron Age Nomads (Northeast of the Black Sea, Western Asia, starting around 1000 BC) whose grave remains were analyzed, Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians, have mtDNA ancestry associated with Central Asia and East Asia, specifically the region around the Altai mountains.

Moreover, all Cimmerians had Siberian ancestry. One of the Cimmerians had haplogroup Q1a, found among Siberians, East Asians and Native Americans and thought to have originated in the Altai Mountains.

Only Turks and Mongols from East Asia are known to have migrated towards Europe and Anatolia in later periods, hence the identity of the Cimmerians can be guessed, but there is a lot more, including linguistic info! For more see: The origins of Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Sycthians

Another Major Update, May 2019 on Scythian Genetics that is fully in line with this article and my books. Shifts in the Genetic Landscape of the Western Eurasian Steppe Associated with the Beginning and End of the Scythian Dominance: From The Abstract (emphasis mine): "The Early Iron Age nomadic Scythians have been described as a confederation of tribes of different origins...

We detect an increase of eastern (Altaian) affinity along with a decrease in Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) ancestry in the Early Iron Age Ponto- Caspian gene pool at the start of the Scythian dominance. On the other hand, samples of the Chernyakhiv culture postdating the Scythians in Ukraine have a significantly higher proportion of Near Eastern ancestry than other samples of this study. Our results agree with the Gothic source of the Chernyakhiv culture and support the hypothesis that the Scythian dominance did involve a demic component."

As you can see this earliest Eurasian empire Scythian / Cimmerian started in the Altai mountains like the Xiongnu/Hun empire that was founded after the fall of the Scythians. This is in line with previous genetic research and my research showing the Turkic - Indo-European - Iranian mix character of the Sycthians and Cimmerians. This fact was also proposed by some scholars before.

The migration/invasion routes are from East to West. There is more! Assyriologist Julius Oppert sought to connect the Gutians who had come from the Zagros / Taurus mountains and invaded Sumer to the European Goths. Increase in Near Eastern ancestry in post Scythian Ukraine seems to support this too.

While the Scythians are known from 800 BC onwards and "strictly" in the Eurasian Steppes, their history goes much earlier in the Near East. Of special interest is the Etruscan- Scythian relation and the presence of Scythians in Mannia / Mannea, near the original homeland of the Etruscans. (See The origins of the Etruscans for more and Father, mother, water and the origins of the Indo-European languages )

Scythian invasions of Anatolia and the Near East, and their migrations were most probably part of the Bronze Age collapse around 1200 BC.

A short passage from my book Sumerian Turks: Civilization's Journey from Siberia to Mesopotamia:

"Scythians were the founders of the first major Eurasian Steppe empire in history.

The land they populated or conquered consisted of vast sections of Eurasia from the Siberia/Chinese border in the east to Carpathian plains, Hungary in the west, and Mesopotamia/Middle East in the south.

Scythian is the first known collective ethnonym in the Eurasian steppes continuity both in time and space. Ğun/Huns/Hunnic Empire succeeded them sometime later.

The area populated and/or controlled by the Ğun/Huns were bigger even though it was largely overlapping with Scythian territories.

Looking from a larger time frame, one can see the succession of the break-up of people unions and then the formation of bigger people unions, states, and empires. This multi thousand-year process went on until the fall of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century AD.

Scythian mastery of horse warfare including iron weapons and their much-overlooked governance skills made these people both feared and vilified by others.

Although many so-called historians describe them as solely nomadic, many settlements that are uncovered in the last decades prove they had built fortified citadels in Siberia and founded villages in present day Hungary and Ukraine, among others."

UzKut (Scyth, Scythians) migrated to Europe from Siberia / Central Asia following two Routes: The Northern Route Through Pontic Steppes and The Southern Route through Iran, Mesopotamia and Turkey

Rome Urum
(Click to see full sized image)

etruscan sumerian
(Click on the images to see then bigger)

Modern Scots are descendants of the Scyth

This is certainly not only a sound correspondance! Scythian and Scottish art is known to have similarities. And then, 2018 genetic results and the fact that current British population haplogroup R is born in Central Asia indicate the presence of the Scythians in Scotland.

See About 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)!

Scythians (Su+Kut) and Goths (Kut) are "almost" the same people. PICT-SCYTHIAN SCOTTISH ART Example issue from the Coloring Booklet Series of Eurasian Arts Szaniszló Bérczi, Eötvös University, Institute of Physics, Budapest, Hungary

The Scythian Scottish Hungarian relationship by Susan Tomory.

The Scythian Exhibition, British Museum .

Scythians: the art of war.

Uzkut > Sukut > Scyth known from Mesopotamian cuneiform records from 3800 years ago regarding Turuk (Turk): Uz > Su and Kut are Qutu/Quti/Guti/Gutian

The people "Su" and "Qu" as well "Sutum" and "Gutium" were mentioned along with Mesopotamian Kingdom of Turuk (Turukkum) consisting of a union of polities.

Please see more info at:

Etymology of the word Turk based on Mesopotamian written records

From Sumerian and modern Turkish Ug/Ag/Aug/Og, to Etruscan Augur, Latin Augeo, and the First Roman Emperor Augustus

Etymology of "Rome" (Roma, Italy)

the Origins of the Etruscans!

How I proved that Ugur Turks / Hurrians were the founders of Ancient Greece

The legacy of the Scythians can be found in ancient records as well as Pre-Greek city names in Turkey and Greece as well as the Middle East.

Kassite people who invaded Sumer lands after Babylonian conquest were also shown in my book to be related to Oguz / Oğaz.

Az > Oğaz > Gaz > Kas > Kassite

Great Work of Russian Researchers Norm Kisamov and Anatole Klyosov on Turkic History

Scythians were not Indo-European originally, they intermingled with the Indo-Europeans / Indo-Iranians. This fact is clearly shown and proven in Kisamov's great articles. Anatole Klyosov has accomplished important work regarding the migrations of the people in Eurasia, Middle East and North Africa that would support many of the ideas about the origins of civilizations put forth in my website and books.

Scytho-Iranian theory:

"The Scytho-Iranian hypothesis originated in the 19th century to link the genesis of Scyths and Sakas with Indo-European genesis. It challenged the traditional association of the Scythians with the nomadic Türks, by establishing a chain of linguistic arguments linking the Scyths and the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages."

Scythians are Turks

Contents on Scythian research

N. Kisamov who ran the most comprehensive website on ancient Turkish history Turkic World also wrote on the Turkic Substrate in English. Many of his suggestions are correct.

Scythians (Uzkut, Sukut) Mixed with the Indo Europeans in the Pontic Steppe and Iran

In both the southern and the northern routes, Uzkut Turks have mixed with the Indo-Iranians. The mixing of the people have happened within both the general population and the ruling class. Hence the linguistic foundational influence of Turkish on European languages. Polish officer turned Ottoman Pasha after the failed European Revolutions of 1848, Konstanty Borzęcki / Mustafa Celaleddin Pasha's work on Touro-Aryan roots of Europe published in 1868 observes this fact in European toponyms and ethonyms.

While he makes mistakes, his work is generally very important. Ataturk had read his book with great interest in 1928 before he himself started working on Turkish history and linguistics, including the revolutionary Sun Language Theory.

While the linguistic influence of the Turks in the Northern route can be observed in languages, toponyms and etnonyms, the civilizational effects of the Turks can be seen in written Mesopotamian records starting with the Sumerians and continuing in the Mediterranaean with the Egytptian, Akkadian, Asyyrian Anatolian, Hittite, Aegean, Greek and Roman written records !

The Nature of the Turkish People: Mixing with People and Migrations

Turks are the most mixed people in history. The nature of the Turks can be found in their language and culture and not their race.

Ataturk had said: "The foundation of the Turkish Republic is culture."

Unfortunately, after his death in 1938, almost noone in Turkey followed (nor follows) his path and all of his sociopolitical principles and history research work were completely abandoned.

Scythian DNA test results

A DNA research paper published in May 2018, 137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes, ( The paper with referrer access) has the following info on its abstract:

"..We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age herders, European farmers and southern Siberian hunter-gatherers... "

The paper has some overreaching claims regarding the languages and does not take into consideration the info that can be derived from cuneiform records, especially, regarding Turuk.

My Latest Book!
English was Turkish English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages

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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included.)