It is well known and universally accepted that Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were connected.
Strong since the 1950s, the evidence regarding Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece is undeniable. We can certainly claim that Sumerians influenced Romans by way of Ancient Greeks. However, there is evidence on a much more direct influence of Sumerians on the foundations of Rome!
How so, you might ask, there is a time gap of 1000 years between the founding of Rome and the "disappearance" of Sumerian city states. The name of the influence is Etruscan, mysterious but well researched founders of Rome together with the other "mysterious" labeled people: Gur (Hurrian) of Anatolia (Turkey), neighbors of Sumer.
Fresco from the Tomb of the Triclinium. Etruscan tomb in the Necropolis of Monterozzi near Tarquinia, Italy. Notice the Tree of Life in between dancers, of Central Asian, Siberian origin and very important in Sumerian Mythology. Since this fresco is part of a tomb, it is reminiscent of shamanistic dance.
Images on this page from Wikimedia
Etruscans were the founders of Rome
"I can never succeed in understanding why Italians still fail to recognize the enormous contribution that the Etruscan civilization has made to our Western civilization. We keep on believing the teaching that the Greeks and above all the Romans are the peoples to whom the Western world owes its origins. All of this is considerably exaggerated and based on historical falsehoods. However, I have ascertained instead that it is the Etruscans, coming from the East, who are the true founders of our European culture, for both good and bad aspects."
Professor Graziano Baccolini, founder of mysteriousetruscans.com, a great website that must be consulted first to get an overview of this neglected civilization.
I should make an amendment to Baccolini's first sentence, instead of Italians let's make it Western social studies academics in general, certainly not all. In fact, the majority of sound research was/is done by a handful of Western academics and I gladly base most of my studies on their work as seen on this site and my books! (For generally low Western standards though, see Oxford lies regarding Sumerian research, Case study: June 2017 twitter exchanges).
Etruscans were the first major civilization in Europe! The formative influence on Rome can be seen in its religion, governance, culture, urban planning and engineering. A short article: How did the Etruscans shape Roman history and society?
Roman myth: Romulus and Remus suckled by a wolf
The legend is that the twin brothers Romulus and Remus who built Rome were raised by a she-wolf.
This tale reminds me of the famous scene in Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables where inspector Javert remarks that in his whole life he has seen only one person with the strength to lift a cart - and this would be Jean Valjean!
There is only one people on earth that has a very similar origins myth: That would be the Turks of Altai, Siberia.
Turkish wolf myth: Only one child survives a fierce battle and he is found and raised by a female wolf. When he grows up, he impregnates the wolf who then gives birth to ten boys, one of them called Asena. This legend claims that most Turks descended from a wolf. Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, very similar to Asena.
Just like in Sumer, maybe even more so than Sumer, the burials were important and most of the current knowledge about Etruscans come from their cemeteries. Many Etruscan cities are continuously inhabited in Italy since their origins about 2800 years ago and some of the Etruscan artifacts are believed to be under Roman, Medieval and Renaissance layers.
The Roman GladiatorRoman gladiator fights were adopted from the Etruscans. They were part of the sacrificial rites for the spirits of the dead. In many cities Etruscans forced men to fight to the death at the funeral of a noble or a king as a way to make offerings of blood to gods.
This practice is of Sumerian origin. Sumerian servants were killed and buried with their dead king to accompany him during his afterlife journey in the underworld (Netherworld) where the dead lived. In Sumer, there were no fights during human sacrificial rites, but the overall concept, beliefs are the same.
Major clues: Religious beliefs and LanguageThe most important clues in comparing ancient civilizations can be found in their spritual beliefs, mythology, and related practices, in addition to their languages. In fact, humans have had religious beliefs long before Sumer, and the most famous example is Gobeklitepe temple, the oldest known religious site in the world, located in Southeastern Turkey.
And we certainly know humans have had spritual beliefs for tens of thousands of years before Gobeklitepe, and burial goods in Eurasia and elsewhere are a testimony to those beliefs.
From Mesopotamia to Rome: Hepatoscopy - Haruspicy
Hepatoscopy was the practice of examining the liver of a sacrificied animal in order to receive messages from gods. These messages would be used by the rulers in decision making: before going to war, signing a peace treaty, or when selecting cultic personel.
This practice originated in Sumer, then was continued by the Babylonians and then propagated to Ancient Greece and Rome! See an important work on this subject by Nicholas Gill, supervised by Dr. Fabio Colivicci Liver Consultation in Babylonia, Greece and Etruria. Hepatoscopy was certainly not the only way for consulting gods and not the only divination practice Romans acquired from the Etruscans. (See Haruspicy and Augury).
Etruscan Augurs > Roman Augurs > US Presidential InaugurationEveryone has heard of the concept of "presidential inauguration" in the US but few people knows where that word, inauguration, comes from. Augur read as Ogur or Oghur is the name of the Roman priest/diviner of Etruscan origins.
Augurs were priests who advised Roman rulers by divining the future based on the flying of birds. You can read more at Why is it called an “inauguration”?
See also A great article on the practice of Augury and its Etruscan origins by Sabrina Waugh.
Also see an interesting take on augury and present day Roman omen: An Irishman’s Diary about the Ides of March, Frank McNally's take on Brexit.
The word Augur in Latin is always mentioned of "unknown origins"! Augur is exactly Ogur / Oghur (au is read as o) and Ogur is the name of one of the three branches of ancient Turkish people whose only surviving member today is Chuvash.
As an important note, I should add in Turkish, Ugur means luck, - as in wish me luck, well in line with Etruscan / Roman / American use! See Probably the most neglected ancient civilization on earth, misnamed as Hurrian, Oghur. And here you will find even more proofs of this fact.
The first king of Rome, Romulus, is said to have named one augur from each of the original 3 tribes, the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres - all patricians. From: Ancient Roman priests (the article is not only about augurs but all Roman priests, by N. Gill).
Aug as in Augur, Clan (Auglan), Augustus is OgThe word clan means son in Etruscan, see Etruscan dictionary. (Interestingly, Gaelic word for children, clann, is listed as the English etymological ancestor of the English word clan, more than 1000 years after the Etruscans).
Compare that to the Turkish word for son, oglan (was also used for children both son and daughter) :
Turkish word "oglan" and Etruscan word "clan" are one and same in sound and meaning. Basically the preceding wovel is dropped, exactly like in the case of Ogur and Gur (misnamed Hur / Hurrian) That's a very special word of kinship and cannot be borrowed/loaned.
Turkish is a subject-object-verb (SOV) agglutinative language like Etruscan, Sumerian, Basque and all other Central Asian/Siberian languages from the Ural to the Altai, and beyond.
Oglan is formed of two syllables that are added. "Lan" as explained by Ioannis Kenanidis is a general wild animal in Sumer and in Turkish it is used as a suffix in words for wild animals such as lions, tigers, snakes etc.
"Og", on the other hand represents, kinship, descent. And this root word Og is what we can find in Ogur and Oguz Turks (and Ogut Turks -my suggestion-), the three branches of Turkish people known since thousands of years. (The preceding wovels were pronounced at a later period, the originals were Gut, Gur, and Guz as I have demonstrated in my book and articles).
So the words Augur/Ogur and oglan/clan are connected by Og but before that by G/gi/ki (think Enki, Sumerian god of fertility) meaning earth in Sumer and the basis for the Greek word geo meaning earth, as in geography! Sumerians believed humans were made of mud/earth so all of this can be seen in Etruscan and Turkish kinship words.
Augustus, origin of the month of AugustEtymology of the word Augustus is not explained. Latin word Augeu is suggested meaning increase, growth, expansion. The two prominent Turkish branches in history are Ogur and Oguz. Ogur is written as Augur in Latin, hence Oguz would be written as Augus/Auguz.
Etruscan words Augur, Clan (Auglan/Oglan) and Roman Augustus are all related to power, clan and kinship structure found in Turkish language and history in their most basic root form Og. When linguists try to form a "proto" Latin root for Augustus they come up with Augeo which is Og in Turkish.
Some linguists say that Latin vocabulary contains many words from an "unidentified Western Asian language". One wonders, which language?
Tarquinii - Tarchon - TarkanFamed Turkish singer Tarkan shares the same name with the kings of the Etruscans because Tarkan is a very old Turkish name used for masters of ironworking, warriors, generals, state employees of ancient Turkish and Mongol states in Siberia and Central Asia.
Etruscan Bronze statuette of a Scythian mounted archer in Italy!
This early 5th century BC artwork is from a funerary urn in Italy, belonging to Etruscan (Tuscany), Campanian (Southern Italy) culture. It has Western Anatolian (Phyrigian) cap and Central Asian (Scythian) jacket! Are you surprised to find this in Italy? Read the full description of this statuette in the New York Metropolitan Musuem website
An answer based on archaeological, genetic and mythological data can be found below.
Roman and Turuk (Etruscan) - Gur (Hurrian) Mythological similarities
In addition to Anatolian and Sumerian gods acquired through Greek pantheon, many Roman gods can be directly connected to the Turuk (Etruscans) and Ogur (Hurrians). Turuk are Ogur Turks.
MarsThe red planet is named after Roman god Mars which derives from Etruscan god Maris, which derives from Sumerian Amarut (Babylonian/Akkadian Marduk)! It has been proposed decades ago by some Western scholars that Roman God Mars is Etruscan Maris. Here, I propose that Etruscan Maris is based on Sumerian god Amarut (Marduk).
Famed Roman god Apollo derives from Gur (Hurrian) god Aplu and Etruscan god of the same name.
Major Roman gods imported from Etruscan PantheonIn the most comprehensive website on Etruscans called Mysterious Etruscans, a very important list of Roman gods of Etruscan Origin is given. You can read the article here Below is a partial list from that article:
Etruscan Aita > Roman Pluto
Etruscan Nethuns > Roman Neptune
Etruscan Satres > Roman Saturn
Etruscan Turan > Roman Venus
Etruscan Tinia > Roman Jupiter
Etruscan Turns > Roman Mercury
Etruscan Uni > Roman Juno
Etruscan Artumes > Roman Artemis
Etruscan Ani > Roman Janus
Etruscan Aivas > Roman Ajax
Etruscan Atuns > Roman Adonis
Origin of the name for J.R.R. Tolkien's evil Orcs is the Etruscan god of death Orcus.
Linguistic relationship between Turuk (Etruscan) - Gur (Hurrian) and othersThere are suggestions on the linguistic relationship between Gur (Hurrian) and Turuk (Etruscan) . Some linguists suggest Tyrsenian language family but this is a rather narrow take on Etruscan language. As an important note Trys should have been Turs as both Greek and Romans named it that way!
For a broader analysis, see Etruscan Hungarian Turkish linguistic relationship by Italian linguistics professor Mario Alinei.
From Etruscan Etnographia exhibition, by photographer Paolo Monti, 1955
Migrations from Siberia/Central Asia to Europe in the last 25000 yearsThere have been at least three migrations towards Europe before documented history of Hun / Xiong Nu (200 BC-600AD) and Mongolian empires (1400 AD).
At least one wave of migration has been identified using genetic studies on grave remains (2017), about 3000 years ago via the Northern Steppes (Russia-Ukraine-Eastern Europe) route. At around the same time period a major destructive wave of migrations (Late Bronze Age Collapse) into Anatolia and the region around Anatolia. Both the Etruscan civilization in Italy and Archaic Greece, the basis of Classical Greece, are formed 200 years after these wars and invasions!
This is an indication that migrations of tribes from Anatolia (Turkey) towards Greece and Italy took place either together with some of the invaders, or more likely, running away from the invaders.
Misnamed Scythians, largely mislabeled as nomadic Steppe Warriors could have been the invaders of Anatolia, there are major clues from Sumerian history.The sycthian warrior with an Anatolian/Phyrigian cap found in Etruscan Italy offers a major clue! (see above)
Rome foundation myth involving Romulus, Remus and the she-wolf is of Turkic Scythian origin while the rest of the Etruscan mythology is of Sumerian, Gur (Hurrian) origin. The mixing of people confuse many academics who do not know anything about Turkish migrations history, language or mythology. Turks are the most mixed people of all time, hence ancient civilizations must be carefully analyzed!
In some instances, the ruling class and the people in general were different people or had different cultures and interacted with each other. This can clearly be seen in Hittite Empire.
Scythian people were Turkic (probably together with some Mongolian and even Iranian/Indo-European people), their ruling class was predominantly Turkic but with an Iranian (so called Indo-European) group.
Settlement of Etruscans to Italy was peaceful like the settement of Sumerians to Mesopotamia.
Etruscans migrated to Central Italy from Anatolia (Turkey)At least part of the Etruscans migrated from Anatolia.
The name Etruscan is originally mentioned in Greek sources as Turs-onoi. and in Latin as Turs-ci -hence the Etruscans- and this word is the basis for the name of the region Tuscany. (Note the extreme similarity of the words Turs and Turs-ci with Turk and Turuk).
Herodotus said that Etruscans had migrated from Lydia (Anatolia / Turkey). In the 20th century, many scholars, except some in Italy, accepted this info based on existing evidence. In the 21st century we can say that this fact is beyond dispute: Robert Stephen Paul Beekes' The Origins of the Etruscans (2003),
DNA Analysis of the people in Tuscany and Western Turkey by Alberto Piazza,
Mitochondrial DNA Variation of Modern Tuscans Supports the Near Eastern Origin of Etruscans, and
The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus (cattle) mitochondrial DNA.
The article by Martin Counihan An Etruscan Solution to a Celtic Problem also has interesting information on the wide reaching influence of the Etruscans in Europe as well as its origins.
Hattians & Trojans of Anatolia and Etruscans by Dr. Metin Gunduz.
Are Etruscans (Turuk) , known founders of Ancient Rome, Ogur (Hurrian) ?
Existing evidence clearly points in that direction. Etruscans are Gur/ Ogur Turks (also known as Hurrian). Turuk, misnamed Turukku were Oghur Turks.
Gur (Hurrians) seem to be the missing link between the Sumerian civilization and Ancient Rome
both directly and indirectly, via Ancient Greece.
Gur people lived in Turkey for thousands of years and were contemporaries to both Sumer (Iraq) and Ancient Greece.
Troy which Romans
considered as ancestral (The myth of Aeneas) lands were the land of the Hattis and Hurrians, modern day Turkey.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (And all my articles on this website included.)