Sumerian Migrations, Original Homeland Central Asia, Ancestral Homeland Siberia, Ugur (Hurrians) and Implications for the Indo-European Homeland
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Sumerian Migrations, Original Homeland Central Asia, Ancestral Homeland Siberia, Ugur (Hurrians) and Implications for the Indo-European Homeland


By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on August 1, 2018, Updated August 2, 2018


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Genetic and Archaeological Research in 2018 reconfirms Sumerian Original Homeland as Central Asia, their Ancestral Homeland as Siberia, and confirms the Migration Route(s)

International research on ancient genomes (In particular The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia (March 2018), but also The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia (May 2018) and The Genetic Prehistory of the Greater Caucasus - May 2018 ) as well as a very important archaeological survey published in 2018 on ancient trade networks reconfirms the contents and the title of my 2016 book, Sumerian Turks: The Civilization's Journey from Siberia to Mesopotamia, even when the genetic research papers were not aimed at Sumerian civilization but rather on finding the Indo-European homeland!

This cannot be called an unintented consequence, as all research effectively uncovers pieces of world history. These genetic research papers on ancient genomes from Siberia, Central Asia and Iran as well as the archaeology research survey showing known migration/trade networks starting in the 4th millenium BC in southern regions of Central Asia, Iran, Mesopotamia and Turkey/Anatolia are extremely relevant to Sumerian research.

A very important research paper by two talented undergraduate students Tian Chen Zeng and Alan J. Aw, and professor Marcus W. Feldman published in May 2018, re-reconfirmed many of my findings and suggestions as explained in my books and articles with a major cross-disciplinary genetics-math-sociology work:

Cultural hitchhiking and competition between patrilineal kin groups explain the post-Neolithic Y-chromosome bottleneck

The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia

The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia by Vagheesh M Narasimhan et. al., March 2018, is a major research paper with so many important finds and comments on the analysis of the "genome wide ancient DNA from 357 individuals from Central and South Asia including the first from eastern Iran, Turan (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan), Bronze Age Kazakhstan, and South Asia".

There are many, but some of the key quotes and findings from the paper, very relevant to Sumerian research:

"Three individuals from the West Siberian forest zone with direct dates ranging from 6200 BCE to 4000 BCE play an important role in this study as they are representatives of a never-before reported mixture of ancestry that we call West_Siberian_HG: ~30% derived from EHG, ~50% from Ancestral North Eurasians (defined as being related deeply to 22000-15000 BCE Siberians (29, 30)), and ~20% related to present-day East Asians."

"We observe significant West Siberian hunter-gatherer related ancestry (also related to Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) and Eastern European HGs (EHG)) in individuals from Iran and Turan during the EN period.

Of particular note is that the samples from Tajikistan from the site of Sarazm, directly radiocarbon dated to the mid-4th millennium BCE, have about 23% of their ancestry attributable to this source."

These finding are nothing short of ground-breaking. They mention Sarazm as part of Kelteminar culture, the native hunter gatherers of the region who covered a vast area of Central Asia long before BMAC (2300 BC). The Kelteminar culture (5500–3500 BC) was sedentary and they depended on fishing and hunting for living. Fishing is especially important regarding Sumer, as water not only served a basis in their creation myths but also fishing and sailing was first practiced in the Near East by the Sumerians. Moreover, the first depiction of a sailboat (5th millenium BC) was found in Kuwait, near Sumer.

At this point, let us also note that Soviet scholar Masson suggested that Turkmenistan Altin Tepe - Kelteminar's language was Finno Ugric. In Russian: Ancient civilizations of the East and steppe tribes in the light of archeology data, Google English Translation. Sumerian Turkish is closely related to Finno-Ugric languages, especially Ugur Turkish, Hungarian and to a lesser extent to Finnish. See Sumerian Language Turkish comparisons and analysis. Moreover, all the ancient languages in Turkey compare well to Ugric languages, Ugur=Hurrian, Hattic=Ugat, Hittite (compared to Uralic) in Turkey, and Minoan Linear A in Greece too, according to linguistic studies (see homepage).

As for the West Siberian designation in the study let us note that the West Siberian Plain is the world's largest unbroken lowland, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the Altay Mountains, and from the Ural Mountains to the Yenisei River. West Siberia generally corresponds to the region, and the linguistic designation mentioned as Ural Altaic since the 18th century, first used by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg.

Notes from the "Summary of Key Findings from The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia" regarding Iran-Turan:

"More Anatolian agriculturalist-related ancestry in the west and more West_Siberian_HG or AASI-related ancestry in the east"

"The primary population of the BMAC was largely derived from preceding local Chalcolithic peoples."

The study shows how Siberians were part of Central Asia and took part in migrations to Iran. Below you will find how these findings relate to Sumerian's original homeland, Central Asia, and ancestral homeland, Siberia, in detail.

Domestication of the Horse by the Botai people in Kazakistan

It was already known that horse was first domesticated in Kazakhstan by the Botai people. Many scholars suggest that horse is central to Indo-European speakers and culture, and that horse played a significant role in the spreading of Indo-European languages.

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) is a frequenty used term to denote a population group based on the genome of a 24,000 year-old Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer from South Central Siberia, known as Mal'ta boy who had basal Y-DNA R. They were Siberians.

The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia Peter de Barros Damgaard et. al. May 2018 reported some very important findings. Among them:

Botai people in Kazakistan derive from an Ancient North Eurasian (Siberian) ancestry. Hence, the people who first domesticated the horse are related to Native Americans, Yeniseians, Eskimos and other Far Eastern Siberian populations.

Quote from the research article:

"They form part of a previously undescribed west-to-east cline of Holocene prehistoric steppe genetic ancestry in which Botai, Central Asians, and Baikal groups can be modeled with different amounts of Eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) and Ancient East Asian genetic ancestry represented by Baikal_EN."

Lake Baikal is the area I had included along with the Lake Balkash and Altai mountains as the ancestral homeland of the Sumerian Turks, while noting the connection to 24,000 year-old Mal'ta boy from the same region.

Another very important quote from that paper:

"Intriguingly, we find that direct descendants of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Central Asia, now extinct as a separate lineage, survived well into the Bronze Age. "

Consider the above, with this information obtained from the research of an international team of scientists with lead author Chuan-Chao Wang The Genetic Prehistory of the Greater Caucasus where they report this surprising discovery:

The genetic ancestry of an individual in Maykop (Northern Caucasus) who relates to Native Americans, namely Karitiana tribe from the Amazon forests in Brazil!

The authors indicate "the existence of a yet-to-be identified ancient north-central Eurasia population with a wide distribution between the Caucasus, Urals and the Pacific coast", of which they have discovered so far the southwestern-most and also the youngest genetic representative!

I had already suggested connections between ancient civilizations in Eurasia and the Americas based on existing evidence. I had also stated that the Eurasian kurgans, Egyptian pyramids, Sumerian Ziggurats and Central American step pyramids were actually related by ancient migrations, and included similarities among Gobeklitepe and American Pacific Northwest artifacts as indicated by Gobeklitepe archaeologists.

Today the people who domesticated the horse have few direct descendants, if any, and the same applies to Botai horses they have domesticated. "All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry and Przewalski’s horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses" reports another major study )

Regarding the origins of Indo-European languages Damgaard et. al. paper remarked that:

"Finally, the lack of steppe ancestry in samples from Anatolia indicates that the spread of the earliest branch of IE languages into that region was not associated with a major population migration from the step".

This finding is a blow to the Steppe Theory of Indo-European Urheimat. They also show the existence of Indo-European words in cuneiform records and suggest Indo-European was spoken in Anatolia since 2600 BC.

Iran - Central Asia related since at least 5000-6000 years ago

BMAC Axe
Image from Wikimedia
Axe With Eagle-Headed Demon And Animals, from Central Asia (Bactria-Margiana), late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BC. Metropolitan Museum of Art It is not a double headed eagle, yet reminiscent of it. Double-headed eagles are known from Hittite and (the Sphinx Gate of Alacahoyuk) and Assyrian art. Double headed eagle was the symbol of the Roman Empire.

Iran - Central Asia connection is well established during the Chalcolitic (Copper age), genetic and archaeological records show.

The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC / Oxus civilisation) is dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, and includes Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. This region was continously inhabited before BMAC hence there is considerable continuity during the Copper Age (Chalcolitic) age in addition to changes due to migrations within BMAC and migrations from Kazakhstan and Iran.

The Kopet Dag (Dağ/Dagh), located to the southeast of the Caspian Sea lies along the frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran and includes sites such as Namazga Tepe, Altindepe, Ulug Depe, Kara Depe, Yassi-depe and Geok-Syur, Jeitun (Djeitun culture since 6000 BC).

The inhabitants of the region used irrigation in farming of wheat and barley.

Sarazm (part of major Central Asian Kelteminar culture and later Bactria) has genetic links to major Turkmenistan ancient sites, Gonur Tepe, Altin Depe and Anau (For example, see Alberto González' post)

Tepe Sialk (Starting at 6000 BC) the site of the oldest Ziggurat and the oldest major pyramid structure in the world, has established archaeological links to the Sumerian city of Uruk.

Tepe Hissar in north-eastern Iran (5th- 2nd millennium BC), acted as a bridge between Mesopotamia and Central Asia and was connected to Tepe Sialk as observed in pottery styles . Moreover, Tepe Hissar has genetic ties to Siberia.

Anau was connected to the Iranian plateau and Tepe Sialk. Anau stamp seal has some parallels to Altindepe, Tepe Hissar, Tepe Sialk.

Sarazm, Tajikistan, Initial Center of the Sumerian Civilization

Bactria kaunakes
Image from Wikimedia
Woman with the kaunakes, beginning of the 2nd millennium BC from Bactria / North of Afghanistan, Louvre museum. Sumerians also wore Kaunakes, hence this dress was one of the many evidences used in proving Sumerian origins.


Of all the places analyzed in The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia, Sarazm stood out as indicated by the authors, by the existence of West Siberian DNA which is related to Ancient Northern Eurasians / Siberians.

Botai people who first domesticated the horse were also connected to Ancient Northern Eurasians / Siberians as seen in The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia.

And Sarazm was also connected to the Botai people who first domesticated the horse (Davidski notes Botai ancestry in Sarazm)

Sarazm, part of the Kelteminar culture, was a major center connected to both Kazakistan and Western Siberia as well as the Altai-Baikal region, South Central and Eastern Siberia.

Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is situated in the Zarafshan Valley of north-west Tajikistan near the border with Uzbekistan.

Around 3000 BC, "Sarazm may be considered as the largest metallurgical center of Central Asia engaged in export" quote from "Elena E. Kuz'mina, (2007), Edited by J.P. Mallory. The origin of the Indo-Iranians book.

In the UNESCO document about Sarazm we find even more impressive stuff. A few of the many important quotes from Penjikent Historical and Archaeological reserve of Sarazm:

"Sarazm is located in a very strategic place which has probably been the key to its unique development during the IV-III millennium BC in Central Asia. It is located on the bank of the Zaravshan river, just between a mountainous zone and a large valley area, one being favourable to cattle grazing, the other to agriculture and farming. Sarazm was a natural meeting point between the nomadic shepherds of the mountains and the first agrarian populations of Transoxiane (region between the Sy Daria and Amou Daria) which practised complementary activities."

"Zeravshan Valley was the main supply region for tin in the ancient world. So far archaeological investigations have proven its continuous exploitation at mining sites both in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan since the second millennium BC.

But it is quite likely that the exploitation started at least a millennium earlier as evidenced by tin-bronze metallurgy at Sarazm and the contemporary use of in in the leading cities of Mesopotamia, like Ur.In the Royal Graves the abundance of lapis lazuli and tin point in the same direction..."

The connection of Sarazm to Sumer is right there in the UNESCO document but not in a way to imply Sumerian origins but to show Sumerian trade connection. There is much more in the document but one other interesting fact:

"A burial site with a woman, a man and an adolescent was the central element. On the woman's skeleton and around it, several thousands of various beads were found (from burned steatite, lapis lazuli, cornelian, turquoise and silver), which were used for decoration of clothes or simply to cover her body, and her hair was decorated by 49 massive gold beads."

Reminiscent of Sumerian Queen Puabi from the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur (c. 2600 BC) Info on Puabi at University of Pennsylvannia

However, the most important info from Sarazm, relevant to Sumerian origins, were the findings relating to Lapis Lazuli use and Sarazm is very near the Lapis deposits in Afghanistan Badakhsan region. Note that this was the only known source of Lapis Lazuli in Ancient World. At this point a very important 2018 article is of big help (see below).

Lapis Lazuli, the religious symbol of the Sumerians

lugaldal

This is not Picasso! Sumerian bull-humans are cult symbols from 4500 years ago. The above is a detail from a Sumerian lyre found in Ur.

lugaldal

From Lyre displayed in University of Pennsylvania Museum

Bull head represents Sun God Ut(u) or Sky God An depending on period and context. Hence, the bull head is made of sun colored gold and sky colored lapis lazuli, the most important gemstone in Sumerian mythology

sumerianlyre

Full detail, from Sumerian lyre:

sumerianlyre
Before getting into the details of the 2018 ground breaking survey by Italian scholars Michele Massa and Alessio Palmisano, which also reveals very important information regarding Lapis Lazuli trade, I would like to mention how critical Lapis Lazuli was to determine the origins of the Sumerians. Excerpt from my book:

"Sky colored lapis lazuli was a major part of the Sumerian mythology and the most important gemstone for them. Yet there are no lapis lazuli mines in the area. In fact, the closest lapis lazuli mine is in Afghanistan more than a thousand kilometers away!

The trail of ziggurats coincides with the trade route of Lapis Lazuli from the Badokskan Mountains of Eastern Afghanistan. A Turkish retired emergency physician, Dr. Metin Gunduz had demonstrated by analyzing Lapis Lazuli trade in a 2012 article published in an international anthropology journal that Sumerians' original location was Turkmenistan.

I should add that lapis lazuli is found in pre-dynastic Egypt about 6,000 years BP and the transportation route inevitably includes Sumer lands! Lapis Lazuli trade coincides fully with the trail of pyramids! The people who have brought the Lapis Lazuli gemstone from Afghanistan were the same people who built the pyramids. Like pyramids, lapis lazuli is central to their culture!"

Associated with sky heavens and deities above all, mentioned in Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld and the Epic of Bilgamesh / Gilgamesh, the gemstone was frequently used in anthropomorphic god statues/depictions. Sumerian influenced Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians also used Lapis Lazuli in jewellery.

I had indicated in my book that Lapis Lazuli mines are also found in Siberia and the people might have known the gemstone from Lake Baikal in Siberia before mining it in Afganistan. The fact that Sarazm has Siberian ancestry and near Lapis mines is probably not a coincidence.

Lapis Lazuli is a marker of Siberian roots and the Sky Heavens it represents is part of the Turkish mythology in Siberia, I had explained.


Badakhshan lapis lazuli deposits located in northeast Afghanistan bordering Tajikistan, became a major post along the Silk Road from Urum to Rome.

Lapis Lazuli routes show the migration routes of Sumerian Turks from Central Asia

Change and continuity in the long-distance exchange networks between western/central Anatolia, northern Levant and northern Mesopotamia, c.3200–1600 BCE

By Italian scholars Michele Massa, author also of Networks of interaction in Early Bronze Age Anatolia (Michele Massa, Nov. 2010) and Alessio Palmisano is a very important work not only for research on Near East trade routes but also for determining the migration routes of the Sumerians.


A very important archaeological survey that analyzes ancient trade networks and shows reintroduction of elephants from India to Syria in early Bronze age, information on ivory manufacture, distribution of weight and length measurement tools from Mesopotamia to Anatolia.

Quote from the abstract: "The paper has hopefully been successful in highlighting significant elements of continuity that strongly suggest that the Old Assyrian Trade network is only the mature stage of a process started at least during the late fourth millennium BC."

Quite relevant not only for archaeology but also research on ancient genomes. Of particular note is their work on Lapis Lazuli.

Map of lapis Lazuli worskshops and raw Lapis Lazuli from the paper.

This map must be used together with Uruk Expansion map below. Some observations about the Lapis Lazuli map:


The 4th millenium Lapis Lazuli workshops are found in Sarazm (Tacikistan), Tepe Hissar (Iran), Mehrgarh (Pakistan) and Mundiga (Pakistan). Of all, Sarazm is the closest to the Afghanistan deposits, Tepe Hissar being the most distant. Hence, 4th millenium Sarazm -Tepe Hissar relationship and direction can be established.

Sarazm (Tacikistan) and Gonur Tepe (Turkmenistan) are known to be related as ancient genome research indicated. Tepe Hissar, Iran and Tarout Island, Saudi Arabia/Bahrain current population genetics research show ancient links.

Raw Lapis is found in Elam, eastern neighbor of the Sumerians, in 4th millenium and Sumerian city of Ur in Early Bronze age. Spread of Lapis Lazuli from East to West is crystal clear as might be expected, emanating from near the deposits in Badakhstan in Northeast Afghanistan part of the region later known as Bactria.

Jebel Aruda (Syria) and the Elamite city of Susa, Iran where 4th millenium raw lapis was found were both known Sumerian Uruk Expansion settlements (see below).

Some of the earliest Sumerian cities Ur, Lagash and ancient Northern Syrian cities Mari, Ebla, and Bahrain Tarut Island were connected in Eearly Bronze Age as seen by the existence of raw Lapis Lazuli.

Tarout Island, was the heart of the Kingdom of Dilmun (3000 BC) mentioned in Sumerian records. It was located in Eastern Coast of Saudi Arabia, between Kuwait and Qatar, and included Bahrain. Tarout is genetically related to Tuscany, Italy as well as to Caucasia as seen in Turuk/Turkish migration waves out of Turkey, Iran and Mesopotamia towards Italy, Greece and Spain! 2200-800 BC.

Lapis Lazuli is also found during Middle Bronze Age, at the Hittite city of Kanesh and Egypt, along the Nile at El Tud.

This shows the migration of the people from Sumer lands not only during Uruk expansion period around 3500-3000 Bc but also afterwards, East to Egypt and Northeast to Kanesh, Turkey. (Note: Hittite Kanesh is the city of the Sun God, Kunesh/Gunesh means Sun in Turkish and K'nsh means Sun in Mayan languages). Lapis lazuli symbolizes the sky and sky heavens rather than the sun, gold symbolizes the sun.

Sumerian Uruk Expansions and Uruk Settlements

Uruk Expansion
(Click to see full sized image)
Last centuries of the 4th millennium BC: Archaeological sites of the "Urukean expansion" and Uruk settlements Image from Wikimedia


Eridu is long considered as the earliest city in Mesopotamia and one of the oldest cities in the world. It is also the southernmost of the Sumerian cities!

This suggests that Uruk expansion is part of the Northern migration wave starting around Eridu. Sumerians in large numbers followed the water, Tigris and Euphrates rivers, all the way North to Arslantepe, Turkey known to be a Kura-Araxes and Ugur (Hurrian) site as well as a major metal working center due to nearby copper mines at Ergani, Malatya.

It is no wonder that Sumerians settled in Southern Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia means the land between Euphrates and Tigris rivers) as fertile valleys and fish provided ample food. At this point Central Asian connection becomes clearer. Keltaminar was a fishing culture and Sumerians might have first mastered water transport in Central Asia.

Sarazm was built near a river and mountains. Sumerians lived around Euphrates and Tigris and built their holy mountains, Ziggurats!

During the late 4th millenium BC Sumerian settlements/colonies appeared all over Northern Iraq and Syria as well as in Southeastern Turkey in Diyarbakir, Sanliurfa and Malatya regions all known Hurrian lands. Antony Sagona also mentions numerous Sumerian settlements in the Taurus and Zagros Mountains who were known to have Hurrian populations in the 3rd Milleniumm BC (Ancient Turkey, by Antonio Sagona, Paul Zimansky).


Sumerian and Ugur (=Huur, Hurrians) were both Ugur Turks. Arslantepe, Eastern Turkey, was already heterogenous with people from Iran and the Caucasus. As I have stated multiple times in my books, Turks are the most mixed people of all time (Hungarians too). Both Turkish and Hungarian, both Ugur (Ugric) languages show the best word matches with Sumerian. Hungarians, themselves Ugur Turks, branched off main Ugur Turkish, whether the split happened in Siberia and Central Asia or in the Near Êast, and when, is up for debate.

Some literature regarding the Uruk settlements or books which mention Uruk settlements:

The Uruk World System, The Dynamics of expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization by Guillermo Algaze

The Archaeology of Colonialism by Claire L. Lyons, John K. Papadopoulos

The Uruk Expansion: Culture Contact, Ideology and Middlemen by Kjetil Sundsdal

Map of Migrations of Sumerian Turks: Siberia - Central Asia - Mesopotamia - Syria - Turkey / Anatolia - Minoan Greece - Egypt - Bahrain

Sumerian Migrations
(Click to see full sized image)

Sumerian Migrations on Eurasian Map

Minoan Greece probably a result of Sumerian Uruk expansion and subsequent Hurrian/Sumerian migrations

Urkesh the 4th millenium Hurrian city is comparable to Sumerian cities in terms of civilization. And its name is formed by adding two Sumerian city names Ur and Kish.

Minoan Greece was founded by the people who migrated from Anatolia. It is known since Charles Burney's work on Indo-European Hurrian relations that Hurrians had also practiced Sumerian culture in addition to their own.

Russian scholar Alexei Kassian's Lexical Matches between Sumerian and Hurro-Urartian: Possible Historical Scenarios is interesting but more work needs to be done.

The conclusion of the author may or may not be correct but his study on Sumerian- Hurrian comparison is very important and unfortunately not many people work on this subject. 12000 BC as a potential split date of Sumerian and Hurrian needs to be checked again with other software. Both Sumerians and Ugur (Hurrians) were Ugur Turks / Hungarian Ugric hence Uralic too.

Dutch scholar Peter Van Soesbergen's work on Minoan Linear A proving it as largely Hurrian: Minoan Script, Hurrians and Hurrian Language is very important.

Greek researchers Ioannis K. Kenanidis and Evangelos C. Papakitsos establish relationship between Greek Minoan scripts , Cretan Protolinear script and Sumerian language. Kenanidis and Papakitsos had classified Sumerian as an r-Altaic language. In 2016, Finnish scholar Parpola had classified Sumerian as a Uralic language.

Both Soesbergen's Minoan-Hurrian and Kenanidis and Papakitsos' Minoan - Sumerian linguistic connections are compatible with each other because of the known Hurrian Sumerian relations in Southeast Turkey and Northern Iraq and Syria.

So far the genetic work on ancient Minoans shows Anatolian, Iranian and Caucasian ancestry and at first this seems more compatible with the Hurrians, though future work may change this. Even so, it might be the a case of ideas traveling without the people parallel to farmers in Iran who did not travel to India but Indians acquired farming from them as Narasimhan study showed. Hurrians may have traveled with Sumerian language speakers or Sumerian scribes to Crete.

Also see:

Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece

Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece

Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome

Etruscan Origins Proven!

Turuk/Turkish migration waves out of Turkey, Iran and Mesopotamia towards Italy, Greece and Spain! 2200-800 BC

Indo - European Homeland and Origins

Sumerian and Hurrian research may actually help locate Indo-European homeland.

For the first time it maybe possible to relate genomic results at a particular period in time to certain languages especially (SOV, agglutinative) using the earliest ancient languages such as Sumerian, Elamic, Hattic, Hurrian and even the ancestral Afroasiatic language, Akkadian, which was both agglutinative and SOV in the beginning.

Moreover in the case of Sumerian it will be possible to relate ancient genomic results to languages in Central Asia and Siberia where no written records are found by following the migration routes back from Sumer to Central Asia and Siberia.

A recent paper from Iosif Lazaridis The evolutionary history of human populations in Europe has an interesting note:

"...In the next few years this lingering mystery will be solved: either Anatolian speakers will be shown to possess steppe-related ancestry absent in earlier Anatolians (largely proving the steppe PIE hypothesis), or they will not (largely falsifying it, and pointing to a Near Eastern PIE homeland)..."

While the absence of steppe ancestry among Hittites, will prove Near Eastern origins of PIE, the opposite may not be a done deal. In other words, the existence of Steppe people among the Hittite may not be enough to prove Steppe Theory.

Indo European language is an offshot of an SOV and agglutinative language as I have previously demonstrated.

It is possible to suggest an Indo-European urheimat using existing information in my books and articles on this website.

Also see Sumerian - Indo European suprising connections which has some very important word comparisons both by the blogger and the blog commentators.

Charles Burney's 1997 Hurrians And Indo Europeans In Their Historical And Archaeological Context pioneering work involves a very good overview of the Hurrian archaelogical, cultural, linguistic records as they relate to Indo_European or Proto Indo_European languages.

Ataturk's Sun Language Theory

Excerpt from my book: "Sumer studies received a major boost in the world during the 1930s thanks to the efforts of the revolutionary founder of Turkey, Ataturk, whose Sun Language theory was mostly based on the existing findings indicating Sumerians were Turks who had migrated from Central Asia to Mesopotamia.

Ataturk also started research on Mayan language and civilization to test his theory by sending an ambassador, Tahsin Mayatepek, to Mexico for Mayan research. His last name was given by Ataturk, a combination of Maya and tepek. Tepe means hill in both Mayan and Turkish languages. I should add that the English word top is similar to tepe!"

After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.

According to Ataturk's Sun Language Theory that I have proven Archaic Turkish is either the first human language or it descended from the first human language, hence ancestral and/or genetically related to many others. I have already shown that many important Indo-European words, especially English words derive from Turkish.

in 1905 Italian linguist, Alfredo Trombetti, had presented evidence of monogenesis. Ataturk had developed his theory based on the works of many distinguished Western scholars he had read with great interest. He had invited many great Western scholars to Turkey to teach in Turkish universities, like George Dumezil, Benno Landsberger among many others and to attend language conferences he himself personally attended while still president.

It is obvious that Ancient Northern Eurasians / Siberians spoke an SOV, agglutinative language as evidenced by the relationship of Dene-Yenisei languages as well as proposed Dene-Caucasian, and Turkish - Quechua linguistic similarities.

And then, there is this: Are all agglutinative languages related to one another? by Hungarian math professor Alfred Toth.

Sun Language Theory is alive, well and beaming.



Note regarding DNA studies, a list of Blogs on Genetic Studies:

To keep up-to-date with new DNA research publications, I started checking, as much as my time permits, the following blogs. Oftentimes, both the bloggers and commentators provide interesting and helpful observations. Eurogenes by Davidski and adnaera.com by Alberto Gonzales, indo-european.eu by Carlos Quiles and Anthrogenica when it shows in search results, since Anthrogenica is a huge community with so many commentators.

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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)

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