By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on January 25, 2019
The stems TAR and TUR are intrinsically related, very close sounds but different. The minor difference among the vowels u/a is less in meaning and more in the populations who used them. Moreover, T/D change is well known hence DAR, DUR, DOR etc. are immediate descendants. This article must be considered together with the first part Tar, and Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish and the etymology of the words nektar and master.
Sumerian word for king Lugal vs Akkadian Shar/Sharru
The linguistic difference between these two words tells a lot about the origins of not only the Sumerians but also the origins of Indo-European and Afroasiatic languages.
The word/suffix TAR is one of the most stable sounds in recorded world history and we can observe it in Sumerian cuneiform records starting from around 3000 BC.
I had identified the meaning of the word in three different domains, in my article religious, governance and daily use, as the godly power to rule, king's authority and physical force meaning split, cut, confiscate. I had given major examples how this word is used in Eurasian, Near Eastern and North African languages in my articles and listed other additional words in my book English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages
Using Sun Language Theory that I have proven, the connection of languages through key words show how connected the ancient world, the Old World, was. That includes Chinese, as well as South Asian languages.
Here are the links to the first recorded use of Tar/Dar in University of Pennsylvania's Sumerian-English dictionary with the timeline of its use:
TAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) cut, untie, loosen, to scatter, disperse, to decide
DAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) to split, to break up, crush, grind
NAM TAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) to decree fate (nam=fate, tar=decree)
A DAR (Ur III, around 2000 BC) to confiscate, seize illegally, to take hold of
The early beginnings of the word clearly show physical force and judicial/governance force.
There is one domain where this word is missing in Sumerian, though: Religion! This is very important since the progression of word use starts at the religious domain.
The use of TAR: Language gives major clues about the identity of the Sumerians and their neighbors and this info must be used with archaeogenetics data
In Akkadian, the word for king is Shar/Sharru derived from Sumerian Tar/Tarra ( t > sh). Note the word "Tar" is not used in the word for king in Sumerian. "Lugal" is a very different word with a very different construction/sound. However, Akkadian word for king Shar/Sharru is clearly related to its Sumerian counterpart "Tar/Dar" concerning ruling authority, "to decree fate", to the use of force in daily work, but not king!
There is more. Sumerian mythology offers important clues on the identity of the people when compared to the later Akkadian/Babylonian mythology. There are major differences in the linguistic construction of god names. In Sumer, you will not find TAR or its derivative Shar except on four instances:
Anshar is a primordial deity but it is of West Afro-Asiatic origin. It is composed by adding Shar suffix to the word for Sumerian highest god, the sky god AN. This is a late addition.
Shara is a minor god of war, mainly identified with the city of Umma, mentioned in some texts as the son of Inanna (Ishtar). The name Shar for a war god is self explanatory! Here too, we clearly see that it is derived from the Sumerian word Tar in sound and meaning, but is a (re)borrowing from Afroasiatic.
Namtar was a minor deity, and was a god of death.
Akkadian Ishtar is the equivalent of Inanna. We see two very separate linguistic ways to express the god of love, fertility, war, political governance: Sumerian Inanna vs Akkadian Ishtar. As a god, Ishtar is of Sumerian origin and has similar function to Inanna.
Ishtaran was the local deity of the city of Der, a Sumerian city state on the border between Sumer and Elam.
Another minor instance of the use of TAR in Sumerian but the crucial point is that the city is near Elam, Iran. The use of D instead of T is also to be noted. The name of the city Der is clearly derived from Tar/Dar and its god is related to the city name:
Moreover, the consort of Ištaran was known as Šarrat-Deri: "the queen of Der". God names were generic names before becoming private names. And Ishtaran was frequently associated with serpent! This is another important piece of information for not only ancient migrations but also for establishing Indo-European roots.
Afroasiatic "Ish" prefix is the equivalent of Indo-European "Us" that we find as a suffix in Indo-European words.
And to the north of Sumer in Anatolia/Turkey we find Uğatti (Hatti) god Taru / Taruh, which is actually Taruğ (Tar+uğ) as the highest Anatolian god, the weather god and early precursor of the Greek god Zeus!
Taruğ is formed by Tar+uğ, just like An+uğ which is transliterated as ANU or simply became so in time, (ğ omitted as it disappears) or as in Egyptian Ankh (life) it becomes a "kh" sound in Afroasiatic.
Hence we can establish the complex linguistic landscape of the Near East and Anatolia using this very word central in ancient societies!
Celtic god of Thunder, Taranis and Sumerian god IshtaranTaranis was worshipped primarily in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Rhineland and Danube regions! That is very interesting because it establishes a path of migration from Sumer to England! (Also see About 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)! as well as the Celtic - Near East ancient DNA connection)
The linguistic connection of Taranis and Ishtaran can be established very easily as the words are composed by the same building blocks/sounds. "Ish/Is", "Tar", and "An". S and SH conversion is very well established so the building blocks of the are the same!
-Is/-Ish/-Us/-Os are typical Indo-European endings/suffixes, in Sumerian it was used as a prefix. It means Us in English. The Turkish correspondant is UZ as in Uguz/Oguz. S/Z conversion is well known.
The same word Taran is used with a prefix in the Afroasiatic word (Ish+Taran), and with a suffix in the Indo-European (Taran+Is) god name.
Taranis was also associated with serpents in some artefacts just like Ishtaran in kudurrus.
Greek god TartarusTartarus was the name of a primordial Greek deity and the prison for the Titans.
Here too, the name has the root Tar and its word duplication parallels its meaning as the dungeon of suffering and prison.
Tar+tar+us = Tartarus
Its function though not the same, is comparable to Sumerian Namtar, Ishtaran.
Latin Dictator, Gladiator, CantorThe suffix -ator, -tor, -or is used in Latin and Indo-European languages to create an agent noun from verbs.
Note that -sor is an equivalent through T > S sound transformation.
Serpent, Dragon, Trakon, Tarkan, TaranisTrakon and serpent are the same word except the -t ending. Trakon > tarkon > Serkon > Serpen > Serpent.
Šarrat means queen and is formed through adding -t to Sharra, meaning king. So the -t was probably used as a feminine agent.
K > P is a crucial sound transformation and I had covered this before. I call it the Parpola rule.
Some English words derived from Tar: "dare", "drag", "dour", "draw", "tower", "guard", "ward" etc.There are many, and I listed some in my articles and others in my books.
Guard and Ward mean the same thing and their sounds are very quite close. Like English "Water" and Spanish "agua" they are connected through the same transformation. See Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
"Ard" means back in Turkish. It is derived from "dar" most probably. Uğard > Guard and Uğa=Wa hence Ward.
"Dar" means narrow in Turkish and used as a root for the verb "making it narrower". There are too many words with "dar" and "der" but since there is noone in Turkey knowledgeable in Turkish history or the history of the Turkish language they are listed as borrowings from Persian while in reality, they are either reborrowings or originals. For example the word "darp" still used as the word for "beat" is actually of Turkish origin. "Daruğ" equivalent to "Darup" hence "darp".
Gibraltar > Cebeli Tariq > TaraqaArabic name "Tarik" is said to derive from Arabic word "taraka" which means to strike! Tar+aka or Tar+ak can be easily explained via Turkish.
Jidar in Arabic means wall Ji+dar. Ji derives from the same as the Ju in Ju+pitar=Jupiter. Details can be found in my books.
TAR and TUR are intrinsically relatedI have shown this in my books and articles, and established the general scope in Etruscan Origins.
To make a distinction between Tar and Tur which is the basis for the word Turuk/Turk as well as the word Etruscan, and to correctly construct Indo-European roots you may consult my books.
I try to list rules and give some examples rather than an exhaustive list. The reader may make new discoveries using the rules. --------------------------------------- ------ This article must be considered together with Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish and the etymology of the words nektar and master. Continuing Another world's first: The relationship between Turkish, Hurrian, Avestan, Hungarian words for fire, English dawn, wood, Sumerian sun and kiln / hearth, Latin and Persian black: ------ Fire of the sun cult in ancient Iran, and the word for fire in Hurrian, Avestan, Turkish, and the word for water in Balkan and Slavic languages Updated February 4.
Continuing Another world's first: The etymology of the word "dark", the opposite of light, tells the connection between Sumer, Iran-India and the British Isles What do the kings Sargon of Akkad, Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great and Persian Darius the Great have in common?
---- Etymology of the word Turuk / Turk How did guard became ward? Another evidence for the origins of the Indo-European languages English Master, German Meister, Latin magister, Old French Maistre
The etymology of the Ancient Greek word Nektar
Etruscan Origins article
What do the kings Sargon of Akkad, Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great and Persian Darius the Great have in common?
They won many wars and conquered territories. They were powerful. They also had "dar/shar" in their name: Šarru-kēn, Alexan+dar, Dar+ayus.
Shar is the Afroastiatic equivalent of Tar and it means king. "T" became "Sh". So Sargon (Šarru-kēn) is the Afroasiatic equivalent of Turkish and Etruscan "Tarkan". The word Tarkan became Sharken/Sharruken in Afroasiatic.
In my books and articles I had shown that "Tar" is a central root word in Indo-European languages and it is used as a suffix in most basic words such as father, mother, daughter, sister, brother, water, as well as in Latin pronouns such as Nostra (Nos+tar/tra), Vostre (Vos+ter/tre) in addition to many other words relating to power such as magister, minister, nektar etc. I have identified that the sound TAR conveys power and was originally a religious term that gave kings the power to rule.
It is also used in the most important Anatolian Indo-European god Tarhun (Tarhunz / Tarhunt / Tarku), as well as Etruscan king Tarkan (Tarchon), and Indian god In+dar+a = Indara / Indra.
As you can see these are major words relating to the building blocks of a society as well as to its political organization.
What does Tar mean? How do we know that it is Turkish?We should look at written Sumerian records first. We should also see if the etymology of this one syllable root word can be constructed using Turkish. Normally one syllable root words are not to be analyzed as they seem to be indivisable, but since it is an ancient word in the form of Consonant-Vowel-Consonant form one can look if it had an initial vowel which later dropped. Using Sun Language Theory, we can easily see that this was indeed the case: Tar has Turkish etymology just like Tanrı / Dingir / Tengri.
Similarly, Sumerian word for god: Dingir (=Turkish Tengri) is a very strong indication that Sumerians were Turks because Tengriism (belief in Dingir/Tengri) is a Central Asian religion, only Turks, Mongols, Hungarians and Hun / Xiong-Nu Empire (predominantly Turkic, with Mongol participation) practice(d) in the entire history of mankind!
Before starting word analysis, I should say that in cuneiform records we notice consonant sound changes, and I have shown the direction of some of these sound changes relating to the consonant T as follows:
t > ts > s
s > sh
d > s
Hence, T is the original sound observed in the above sound changes. T becomes D, S or SH. This is a very important piece of information: the change happens because of another people adapting it.
D is mostly Indo-European while S and SH are mostly Afroasiatic. Note that I use "mostly". While these transformations took place many words are left as is, with an original T.
The root word for the Anatolian Weather god TarhunIn the Wikipedia article for Tarhunz, the name of the god and its derivatives are listed as:
"The name of the Proto-Anatolian Weather god can be reconstructed as *Tṛḫu-ent-, a participle form of the Proto-Indo-European root, *terh2; Hittite, tarḫu-, meaning "to cross over, pass through, overcome" (also the source of the Latin word trans-, the Dutch door, German word durch, and the English through). The same name was used in almost all Anatolian languages (Hittite: Tarḫunna-; Carian: Trquδ- and Lycian: Trqqas (A), Trqqiz (B), which was identified with Zeus)."
Looks good, except Indo-European reconstruction is listed as "*terh" instead of Tar.
Even though "h" is a minor addition to the root end, this issue must be resolved to construct the correct word!
In the beginning of the article I have mentioned that I had proven Tar and its derivative Ter is used in most basic Indo-European words including god names. In my "Sun Language Theory Proven! The Birth of Languages and Civilizations" book I had shown how crucial ancient languages based on sun and sky worship were in the development of human languages. Hence, god names are very important. They are used as king, mountain, river, city, region names as well as personal names. I have shown that the initial religious terms such father and water became mundane terms used everyday.
Uğatti / Hatti had a pre-Indo-European god known as Taru. And it is known that the Indo-European god names are based on this name. Here we observe no "h".
It has been correctly suggested that the god name Tarhu should have been read as Taruh instead of Tarhu. (See HITTITE ETYMOLOGIES AND NOTES)
This would make the word tar-uḫ= Taruh. H breve is used instead of a regular h.
TAR is the root word as I have suggested previously, and Taruğ would be "the people of Tar", "kin of Tar", "the family of Tar". Using ğ instead of "ḫ" not only gives meaning to the word but its use is validated with the existence of the Sumerian word Uğ meaning same (people). Moreover these two sounds are very close. While ḫ is a constructed sound ğ is a sound known and used since at least 4000 years in Sumerian and Turkish!
There is more. It is generally accepted that the city name Tarsus derives from local Hurrian god Tarku! This is only possible if the root word was Tar instead of Tarh: Tar+ku and Tar+sos, there is no h in either word. Hence it implies that "Tar" as a root is already accepted. Also, note that -sos is the typical pre-Greek suffix found in Turkey and Greece.
The famed city of Troy was Taruisa in Hittite records. Here too, we find TAR.
Tarbisu (near Nineveh), Terqa, Tarqanu are some of the ancient city names in Northern Mesopotamia beginning with TAR. The famed Kingdom of Dilmun was located in Tarout Island in the Persian Gulf, and was located to the south of the Sumer lands.
Dardania was located in the Northwestern corner of Anatolia, to the immediate north of Troy, and facing modern Gallipoli across the Dardanelles. The Trojans and Dardanians were probably of the same stock. Here we see Tar > Dar. Ancient Roman city of Tarentum (formerly the Greek colony of Taras) and many other cities in the Mediterranean have the Tar, Tra, Dra root sound in their names. Ancient Spanish Tartessian, Tartessos are equally related and Basque - Caucasian linguistic relations are known. Indian god Rta may be a metathesis of TAR.
After establishing the root word as Tar it becomes obvious that the single consonant "h" means something and this can only be the Turkish "uğ" which is a family/tribe marker. I have shown that this sound can be transformed to many other consonants; ğ > h was already well established.
Tar and its derivatives as a major word in languages across EurasiaTartar or Tatar is an ethnonym which was and still used to define Turks. Tartar is a word duplication and has the original T sound.
Thor the Norse god, is related. (T > th). The ethnonyms Dorians (root Dur or Dar) who invaded Ancient Greece, Thracians (root Tar or Tur) are certainly related.
The son of Turuk (Turukkaeans) Zagros King Nassumar was named Tarugur (Tar+Ugur). The mythical founder of the Scythian Empire was Targitaos.
Akkadian equivalent of Sumerian Inanna was named Ishtar. Indian Dharma has also Tar/dar as a root.
Aramaic god Tar'atheh, god names known from Ugarit such as Ațtart, ʿAštart (called Astarte in Greek), Atargatis were among the major gods in the Levant starting with the Bronze Age.
In languages across Eurasia from Siberia to Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East and Southern Asia we find the root Tar/Dar as a marker of governance, enforcement, physical force in daily use in addition to its presence in Ancient god names.
The word Mediterranean has TER(ra) meaning earth, land in it. No surprises here, as the word land relates to godly power of the kings. This is what made ancient theocratic societies.
From Tarim basin China to Tartessos, Spain we find Tar. We even find it in the name of the ancient medicinal herb from Siberia: tarragon known in Turkish as Tarhun!
Ancient Greek Trakon, the source of the word Dragon also has Tar root.
Hurrian god Sarruma was most probably Tarruma.
From my book "The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans and Spain":
Sardes was most probably Tartes as Afroasiatic Sherdan "şrdnn(m)" was written in Ugaritic as "trtn(m)". Ugaritic was Ugur/Oghur Turkish which evolved into Afroasiatic.
Comparing şrdnn(m) and trtn(m) we find "t > ş/sh" and "t > d" sound correspondances.
This makes sense as "t> ts> s", "s > sh", "t > d", and "d > s" sound transformations are observed in other Mesopotamian records as well.
So if we apply the reverse transformation to Sardes we arrive at the original sound: Tartes. This is what we find in Iberian peninsula Spain! Tartessos and Turudi in Iberian pre-Roman Spain are the same or closely related people. This would explain the existence of the toponym "Iber" both in Caucasia and Spain. Basque, Sumerian, Etruscan are related to each other and to Caucasian languages.
In Was ‘Scythian’ an ‘Iranian’ language? Borisoff criticizes Abaev' work but the real gem is in the following words:
"Scythian Ardar ‘master, ruler, knjaz’; Ossetian ældar, from Alanian adopted into Hungarian (aladar) and Mongolian (aldar)."
The Tar/Dar is used as a suffix in words defining ruler, king. This is along the word Targitaos mythical founder of Scythia!
There is more in Slavic and Sanskrit the word also is used as a marker of physical force. Moreover "dar" is also the basis for the English word "door".
This is very interesting because "dar" is used in many Turkish words "darp" (beat), "derdest" (clamp down) also as a suffix -dar in many words meaning hold, enforce. Since there is noone knowledgeable in Turkish language they list these word as borrowings from Persian, while they are reborrowings.
Many English words, including "dare" "through", derives from "dar" and tar/dar is used as a suffix as in master.
It is possible to follow migrations through the use of the stem/suffix TarUsing linguistiscs with genetics data will help reveal a lot more on the migration of languages and culture.
The meaning of Tar: religious, governance, and physical forceThere are three levels of use and they all indicate authority.
As they are the oldest written records of humanity, one should look at Sumerian language to find the origins of a word or its original spelling. It does not mean the oldest version of the word but it sure is the oldest recorded version and it is possible to extrapolate back in time using this information.
Nam = fate, Namdar= fate decree, hence dar means decree. In physical world, Dar=split, Tar=cut.
Decree and physical force are in line with the Indo-European use but there is one very important domain where Tar is missing: religion. Atra-Hasis myth is known from 1800BC around the time Akkadians conquered Sumer lands. Ishtar is also Akkadian. (iš [MOUNTAIN] (15x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. iš "mountain(s)" Akk. šadû)
Tar'am-Agade was the daughter of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin, and she married the king of the Hurrian city of Urkesh. Here we find Tar root as well.
Genetics of Indo-European speakersLanguages and genes rarely correlate.
Genetics show that the speakers of Indo-European languages have Siberian ancestry, which is denoted as ANE, Ancient Northern Eurasians who are known to have survived well into the Bronze Age. The populations living in Europe have ancestry from Central Asia too as the genetics data show. These regions are historically associated with Turks and Mongols. Some people tried to connect Indo-European languages to haplogroup "R1a" but that approach failed as the Scythian and Sarmatian genetic records show, they were R1b and Q1a in addition to R1a. Hence through genetics, we clearly see Indo-Europeans together with other people from Siberia, Turks and Mongols.
Indo-European is basically a linguistic construct, hence we can call Indo-Europeanization as the linguistic process that creates a new language group from Turkish. ------------------------------------------------------------------- strike file:///C:/Users/gh/Documents/sumerian/sumeriannn/etruscans_greece_rome_origins.htm TUR AND TAR ----------------------------- The word "dark" is listed as of uncertain origins in Etymonline. In Wiktionary, the article refers to Proto-Germanic *derkaz (“dark”) and Proto-Indo-European *dʰerg- (“dim, dull”) and Proto-Indo-European *dʰer- (“dull, dirty”) none of which are attested in written sources. They are reconstructed sounds.
Let's look at written sources first before checking "Proto-" hypothetical reconstructions.
Wiktionary entry offers the translation of the word "dark" in some world languages. There are many words that have the "der"/"dar"/"tar" sound. We find it in languages in and around Iran and India. The connection is strong in languages in Tajikistan, Iran, India and Bangladesh such as Assamese, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi and Yaghnobi. I should add that Italian word "tramonte" is also interesting.
Among them, Persian and Tajik words stand out in addition to Scottish Gaelic and Irish. Here the match is beyond "tar/dar" it is "dar/Tar" plus "uk"= Taruk/Daruk:
Persian: تاریک (fa) (târik), تار (fa) (târ), تیره (fa) (tīre)
Tajik: торик (tg) (torik)
Scottish Gaelic: dorcha
These words are basically minute variations of Tar+uk= Taruk. (t>d)
Both of these words are of Sumerian Turkish origin tar/dar and uğ/uk (people, kind, lineage). Also see and Avestan "atar" for fire, Latin "ater" for black
Both proto-Indo-European constructions are in line with the above existing words!
There is more, Persian is the only language that has both "Tar" and "Tarik". This suggests Iran which neighbors Sumer lands in Iraq as the likely source of the English word "dark" originating in Sumerian Turkish language!
What connects Central and South Asia to the British Isles: Ancient Migrations proven by DNA data"Added March 22, 2018: Many Early East Germanic (Eastern Goth / Ostrogoth, Gepid) Noble Women from 500 AD were Turks from Central Asia: East Germanic DNA in Bavaria
The study is about the period of the Hun invasions of Europe. Huns were mostly Turkish mixed with Mongolian, Hungarian and other tribes."
Is it this migration or a prior one that brought this word to Europe? Is it via the Eurasian Steppes or the Balkans and the Mediterranean?
The answer can be found after analyzing Greek god Tartarus, Celtic god Taranis and Latin word "ater" in addition to migration data.
In my article Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus I had stated that the Sumerian word Gugalanna is the basis for the Irish Cú Chulainn. Gu+gal+anna= bull+big+sky/heaven using additive (agglutinative) property of the Sumerian Turkish language.
Wikipedia entry says:" Cú Chulainn shows striking similarities to the legendary Persian hero Rostam, as well as to the Germanic Lay of Hildebrand and the labours of the Greek epic hero Heracles, suggesting a common Indo-European origin, but lacking in linguistic, anthropological and archaeological material."
Unfortunately the genetic info is out there on the research papers published online but the heavy censorship of Wikipedia editors can be felt even in this article.
Jules Oppert who gave the name Sumer to the civilization in the 1860s, linked Gutian invaders of Sumer to the Goths of Europe recorded 2500 years later. I had already suggested that this was indeed correct with additional evidence in my book Sumerian Turks: Civilization's Journey from Siberia to Mesopotamia
Tartarus was the dark abyss below Hades in Greek mythologyIt was also the name of the dungeon for the Greek gods. I had explained its etymology in my previous article. The name is still listed as of uncertain origins while a very similar Sumerian god by the name Namtar shows the obvious Greek-Sumer connection.
Namtar, the Sumerian god of death and the underworldNamtar literally means fate decree, "tar" meaning "decree" and "nam" "fate". It was a minor deity in Mesopotamian mythology but its name and function parallels Greek Tartarus. The Sumerian - Greek civilization connection was known since decades, and it is more than puzzling that noone looks into Sumerian Turkish and Hurrian to find the origins of the Greek gods!
Latin word for black, dark: AterWiktionary states a correct etymology connecting it to the Proto-Iranian word for fire, "atar":
"From Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁ter- (“fire”) (whence Proto-Iranian *ātar- (“fire”), Umbrian 𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀 (atru), Oscan 𐌔𐌉𐌉𐌓𐌝𐌃𐌀𐌀 (Aadíriis), Old Irish áith (“kiln”))."
These words are clearly connected to Sumerian word/suffix TAR not only by geography but by mythology and language.
Vyacheslav V. Ivanov states that Latin word "Ater" seems related to the Hurrian word for fire "tari" and Avestan "atar" in his important work on Indo-European origins:
Comparative Notes on Hurro-Urartian, Northern Caucasian and Indo-European The word "atar" is a key word and I had stated that the root Tar was formed through At+ar with an initial vowel drop Atar > Tar. This word was critical in establishing Indo-European roots: Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
Atreus, mythical Mycenaean king and Atys Lydian king are also relatedI provide some examples in my articles, you may see the full picture of the Indo-European roots in my books.
I try to list rules and give some examples rather than an exhaustive list. The reader may make new discoveries using the rules.
He also makes very important remarks concerning the connections of this word to the related words in Ossetian, Czech, Latin, and other Indo-European languages. Turkish word is ataş from atar > Ataz/Atas.
TAR is a key root word suffix for Indo-European languagesTAR is a very important word for many world languages, ancient and modern, but for Indo-European languages, it is of special importance.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)