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One of the most stable sounds in 5000 years of recorded history: Sumerian word for king Lugal vs Akkadian Shar/Sharru, Hatti Taru, Hittite Tarhun, Celtic Taranis, Greek Tartaros, Latin Gladiator, Arabic Taraqa

By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on January 25, 2019

This article must be considered together with the first part Tar, and Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish and the etymology of the words nektar and master.

Sumerian word for king Lugal vs Akkadian Shar/Sharru

The linguistic difference between these two words tells a lot about the origins of not only the Sumerians but also the origins of Indo-European and Afroasiatic languages.

The word/suffix TAR is one of the most stable sounds in recorded world history and we can observe it in Sumerian cuneiform records starting from around 3000 BC.

I had identified the meaning of the word in three different domains, in my article religious, governance and daily use, as the godly power to rule, king's authority and physical force meaning split, cut, confiscate. I had given major examples how this word is used in Eurasian, Near Eastern and North African languages in my articles and listed other additional words in my book English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages

Using Sun Language Theory that I have proven, the connection of languages through key words show how connected the ancient world, the Old World, was. That includes Chinese, as well as South Asian languages.

Here are the links to the first recorded use of Tar/Dar in University of Pennsylvania's Sumerian-English dictionary with the timeline of its use:

TAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) cut, untie, loosen, to scatter, disperse, to decide

DAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) to split, to break up, crush, grind

NAM TAR (Starting around ED IIIb 3000-2500 BC) to decree fate (nam=fate, tar=decree)

A DAR (Ur III, around 2000 BC) to confiscate, seize illegally, to take hold of

The early beginnings of the word clearly show physical force and judicial/governance force.

There is one domain where this word is missing in Sumerian, though: Religion! This is very important since the progression of word use starts at the religious domain.

The use of TAR: Language gives major clues about the identity of the Sumerians and their neighbors and this info must be used with archaeogenetics data


In Akkadian, the word for king is Shar/Sharru derived from Sumerian Tar/Tarra ( t > sh). Note the word "Tar" is not used in the word for king in Sumerian. "Lugal" is a very different word with a very different construction/sound. However, Akkadian word for king Shar/Sharru is clearly related to its Sumerian counterpart "Tar/Dar" concerning ruling authority, "to decree fate", to the use of force in daily work, but not king!

There is more. Sumerian mythology offers important clues on the identity of the people when compared to the later Akkadian/Babylonian mythology. There are major differences in the linguistic construction of god names. In Sumer, you will not find TAR or its derivative Shar except on four instances:

Anshar is a primordial deity but it is of West Afro-Asiatic origin. It is composed by adding Shar suffix to the word for Sumerian highest god, the sky god AN. This is a late addition.

Shara is a minor god of war, mainly identified with the city of Umma, mentioned in some texts as the son of Inanna (Ishtar). The name Shar for a war god is self explanatory! Here too, we clearly see that it is derived from the Sumerian word Tar in sound and meaning, but is a (re)borrowing from Afroasiatic.

Namtar was a minor deity, and was a god of death.

Akkadian Ishtar is the equivalent of Inanna. We see two very separate linguistic ways to express the god of love, fertility, war, political governance: Inanna vs Ishtar. As a god, Ishtar is of Sumerian origin and has similar function to Inanna.

Ishtaran was the local deity of the city of Der, a Sumerian city state on the border between Sumer and Elam.

Another minor instance of the use of TAR in Sumerian but the crucial point is that the city is near Elam, Iran. The use of D instead of T is also to be noted. The name of the city Der is clearly derived from Tar/Dar and its god is related to the city name:


Moreover, the consort of Ištaran was known as Šarrat-Deri: "the queen of Der". God names were generic names before becoming private names. And Ishtaran was frequently associated with serpent! This is another important piece of information for not only ancient migrations but also for establishing Indo-European roots.

Afroasiatic "Ish" prefix is the equivalent of Indo-European "Us" that we find as a suffix in Indo-European words.

And to the north of Sumer in Anatolia/Turkey we find Uğatti (Hatti) god Taru / Taruh, which is actually Taruğ (Tar+uğ) as the highest Anatolian god, the weather god and early precursor of the Greek god Zeus!

Taruğ is formed by Tar+uğ, just like An+uğ which is transliterated as ANU or simply became so in time, (ğ omitted as it disappears) or as in Egyptian Ankh (life) it becomes a "kh" sound in Afroasiatic.

Hence we can establish the complex linguistic landscape of the Near East and Anatolia using this very word central in ancient societies!

Celtic god of Thunder, Taranis and Sumerian god Ishtaran

Taranis was worshipped primarily in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Rhineland and Danube regions! That is very interesting because it establishes a path of migration from Sumer to England! (Also see About 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)! as well as the Celtic - Near East ancient DNA connection)

The linguistic connection of Taranis and Ishtaran can be established very easily as the words are composed by the same building blocks/sounds. "Ish/Is", "Tar", and "An". S and SH conversion is very well established so the building blocks of the are the same!

-Is/-Ish/-Us/-Os are typical Indo-European endings/suffixes, in Sumerian it was used as a prefix. It means Us in English. The Turkish correspondant is UZ as in Uguz/Oguz. S/Z conversion is well known.

Tar+An= Taran

The same word Taran is used with a prefix in the Afroasiatic word (Ish+Taran), and with a suffix in the Indo-European (Taran+Is) god name.

Taranis was also associated with serpents in some artefacts just like Ishtaran in kudurrus.

Greek god Tartarus

Tartarus was the name of a primordial Greek deity and the prison for the Titans.

Here too, the name has the root Tar and its word duplication parallels its meaning as the dungeon of suffering and prison.

Tar+tar+us = Tartarus

Its function though not the same, is comparable to Sumerian Namtar, Ishtaran.

Latin Dictator, Gladiator, Cantor

The suffix -ator, -tor, -or is used in Latin and Indo-European languages to create an agent noun from verbs.

Note that -sor is an equivalent through T > S sound transformation.

Serpent, Dragon, Trakon, Tarkan, Taranis

Trakon and serpent are the same word except the -t ending. Trakon > tarkon > Serkon > Serpen > Serpent.

Šarrat means queen and is formed through adding -t to Sharra, meaning king. So the -t was probably used as a feminine agent.

K > P is a crucial sound transformation and I had covered this before. I call it the Parpola rule.

Some English words derived from Tar: "dare", "drag", "dour", "draw", "tower", "guard", "ward" etc.

There are many, and I listed some in my articles and others in my books.

Guard and Ward mean the same thing and their sounds are very quite close. Like English "Water" and Spanish "agua" they are connected through the same transformation. See Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish

"Ard" means back in Turkish. It is derived from "dar" most probably. Uğard > Guard and Uğa=Wa hence Ward.

"Dar" means narrow in Turkish and used as a root for the verb "making it narrower". There are too many words with "dar" and "der" but since there is noone in Turkey knowledgeable in Turkish history or the history of the Turkish language they are listed as borrowings from Persian while in reality, they are either reborrowings or originals. For example the word "darp" still used as the word for "beat" is actually of Turkish origin. "Daruğ" equivalent to "Darup" hence "darp".

Gibraltar > Cebeli Tariq > Taraqa

Arabic name "Tarik" is said to derive from Arabic word "taraka" which means to strike! Tar+aka or Tar+ak can be easily explained via Turkish.

Jidar in Arabic means wall Ji+dar. Ji derives from the same as the Ju in Ju+pitar=Jupiter. Details can be found in my books.

TAR and TUR are intrinsically related

I have shown this in my books and articles, and established the general scope in Etruscan Origins.

To make a distinction between Tar and Tur which is the basis for the word Turuk/Turk as well as the word Etruscan, and to correctly construct Indo-European roots you may consult my books.

I try to list rules and give some examples rather than an exhaustive list. The reader may make new discoveries using the rules.

About Me:

English was Turkish English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages

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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)

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