By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on October 23, 2018, Last Update on January 11, 2019
Continued from PART I: Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans
(Click on the image for the answer) PART III: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus
PART IV: English, Greek, Latin and other Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
PART V: Is it the Caucasus mountains or the Taurus / Zagros ? Indo-European Homeland Proven!
WaterHave you ever noticed how close the words water and father sound ?
About 100 years ago, Czech scholar Bedrich Hrozny was about to decipher an ancient language written on cuneiform tablets in around 1000 BC, found in Bogazkoy, near Ankara, central Turkey. Using his Sumerian and Akkadian knowledge he was able to read one line as follows:
He immediately recognized Ninda as "bread" thanks to his previous Mesopotamian studies. However, another word not known from Mesopotamia stood out.
Yes, water! This was an amazing discovery. He also recognized German word for "eat", "essen" (Hittite "ezza") and translated the line as "eat bread and drink water". The amazing discovery that lead to the breakthrough was the word "watar" which had become German "wasser" too. English word "water" is even closer to the Hittite word, it is basically the same after 3000 years! Pretty impressive.
Hronzy then went onto translating the rest of the text, and other cuneiform tablets. He concluded that the ancient language was the first Indo-European language with written records: the Hittite language.
In the 1930s, Ataturk was particularly interested in the discovery of the Hittite civilization. He founded Hittite studies department and named the major national mining company and bank "Eti" in their name, so the people would learn their name with daily use. He also said Hittites may have been Turks as he said the founders of the first major civilization in the world, Sumerians were Turks and lived for 2000 years in Turkey's southern neighbor, Iraq. Assyriology scholars and linguists asserted that Hittite language was an Indo-European language and to this day there is uniform agreement among scholars around the world that Hittite is an Indo-European language.
After 5 years of research, I have proven Ataturk's Sun Language Theory and showed that Indo-European languages and many other world languages derive from Turkish, and as such, Turkish is either the first human language or one that directly descended from it. Hence Hittite was also derived from Turkish, in particular Sumerian Turkish.
Let's now look at the word "watar" through Sumerian Language, by using Sumerian - English dictionary at University of Pennsylvania and Sun Language Theory:
The sound "wa" or specifically the sound "w" is not found in Turkish, and it is certainly a late addition to languages. The Sumerian-English dictionary has the following:
Uğ = People (Note: the meanings lineage, kin, kind as in humankind must be added. If your browser cannot display the ğ character, it is a voiced g coming from the throat)
a = water
Tar on the other hand is found as a root in Hatti god Taru, Hittite Tarhunz, Etruscan Tarchon, and as a high officer and kagan (king) title in the Altai mountains and Mongolia. It is a mythological term, and from its later use we know that it gives the kings the power to rule over people. In Sumerian, Tar means decree, in line with meanings in other languages.
So, we have the following by using the additive property of Sumerian Turkish:
The ğ (voiced g) does not have any correspondant in Indo-European languages, hence I can only provide an approximation for how it sounds: ooatar. "oo" as in loop, cook etc. Try to say it quickly, and see how close it is to water. With ğ, it is even closer.
Laryngeal TheoryIn 1879, French linguist Ferdinand de Saussure theorized that Indo-European languages had a laryngeal sound which later disappeared. This is known as the Laryngeal theory, and that missing sound is represented with variations of h such as h1, h2, h3. This theory was proven true with the discovery of the Hittite language, and the lost sound is represented with h breve (with an underline) in Hittite studies!
This "h" sound is very close to Sumerian and Turkish voiced g: "ğ". In early 2016, I had shown that Hurrian is misnamed Ugur. I have emailed many Western scholars, written in a paper discussion in Academia, my thesis that the sound must be corrected to ğ from h. I did not find any support anywhere, and sometimes I was met with quite offensive replies, including in Turkey, where academicians repeat whatever the West tells them to say. Except, a few days ago, I found out that a Hungarian-American computer scientist, and a researcher in ancient language studies, Peter Revesz, (author of Spatio-Temporal Data Mining of Major European River and Mountain Names Reveals their Near Eastern and African Origin, speaker in the Conference Video in Budapest) had linked to my article How I proved that the founders of Ancient Greece were Ugur Turks, known as Hurrians and a Turkish blogger, Gürkan Yeniçeri, linked my Sun Language Theory book. Plus a few shares including one on Etruscan civilization by a Spanish commentator on an Italian blog page. That's almost all in about 3 years.
Let's go back to the word watar: uğ-a-tar= people/lineage + water + power to rule.
Why would the Hittites not use Sumerian word for water, "a", a most simple sound, a vowel, and complicate it with a prefix (uğ) and a suffix (tar)? Why so pompous?
The answer lies in the Sumerian word "a" which has two more meanings in addition to water: "semen", and "progeny"!
FatherThe word "father" was critical in establishing the Indo-European language family: languages from Sanskrit to English used a common word. See How the Word ‘Father’ Unlocked the History of Language.
The word that is hypothetized as the proto-Indo European (PIE), that all others derive from, is Pitar. Etymologyonline and Wiktionary state that the word comes probably from the baby sound "ba". I agree with this assesment as this is true for languages other than Indo-European, such as Turkish word for father "baba", as in Ali Baba.
However, this explanation misses a very important point, second part of the word which is "tar", used as a suffix. The use of "Tar" to construct family words establishes a dynasty. This is where the clue lies for the origin of Indo-European languages. TAR is also found in other important words: mother, sister, brother, daughter, but not in son (See Sun Language Theory Proven! for the reason why).
Sumerian "Abba", Turkish "Baba", Etruscan "Apa", Hungarian "Apa", all mean father.
Etruscan especially, is closest to Indo-European languages, and also has the closest "p" sound. See Etruscan civilization founded by migrants from Turkey for more. Hence, we can suggest that Indo-European "Patar" is derived from "Apa+Tar" and with a known initial vowel drop in ancient Indo-European languages:
Apatar > Patar. Sankskrit Pitar, Latin Pater, Greek Pater, English Father, Old Norse Fathir, German Vater are all known derivatives of Patar. The initial consonant "P" becomes "V" or "F" in different European languages
At this point, I should mention a seminal paper by famed Finnish Assyriogist Simo Parpola on Sumerian Uralic word comparison results presented in 2007, to the World Assyriology Congress in Moscow. Parpola's article is written in a very simple language, and anyone can read it. The article is hosted on the most comprehensive Turkish history website (apart from SumerianTurks) and was established by Russian scholars, Anatole Klyosov and Norm Kisamov.
Parpola makes a very important observation: how in Finnish and Sumerian, a missing labiovelar was replaced by the g/k and b sounds in Sumerian and v sounds across the Uralic languages and this shows a genetic relationship between Sumerian and Uralic languages including Finnish. Hence, it establishes the equivalence of g/k or b and v or p.
The best known case of alternation of G and B is found in the famed Sumerian myth of Gilgamesh, also known as Bilgamesh.
So Etruscan "Apa" would be equivalent to "Ağa" which means feudal lord, landlord, father in Turkish. "A ag"means "to command" in Sumerian.
And the word for father "Ağa" is almost the same as "Uğa", which I used as the first part of the word for Hittite water. "Uğ+a" literally means People/Lineage/Kinship + Water/Semen/Progeny. "Tar" is a suffix as explained above.
There is even more. "Uga" (=Ug+a) means milk in Sumerian!
Hence bodily fluids/waters that are essential in procreation and the progenitors can be constructed using most basic Sumerian Turkish words: "Uğ" and "a".
Water-Father RelationshipParpola also mentions water-father homophony in Finnish, a Uralic language, in addition to Sumerian: a, aj "water" and aj, aja "father" in Sumerian, and jää, jäj and äj, äijä in Uralic.
Modern Turkish uses "su" as water, but has ancient word "ab" for water and "baba" for father. Hence, water-father relationship holds in Turkish too. I had previously explained the relationship between "su" and "ab" and won't get into details here.
Sumerian word for sea, ocean "ab" or "a-ab-ba" is equivalent to Finnic "aava", "aappa", Parpola shows. Hungarian "öböl" means bay, harbour (tip by Peter Revesz). Parpola also mentions the Sumerian word Ugu (=Ug+u), meaning top of the head has its counterpart in Hungarian "Agy", meaning brain and Uralic word *ajkwo "brain, top of the head".
Water-Father relationship holds accross languages, Sumerian (the first known language of humanity), Turkish (misclassified as Altaic only), Finnish (Uralic/Ugric), and Indo-European. This is another major evidence for the Sun Language Theory in addition to the evidence I presented in my books and articles.
MotherSumerian "Ama", Turkish "Ana" (from Ama), Basque "Amak" mean mother. The word "mother" derives from Sumerian "Ama" similar to the derivation of the word "father":
Ama + tar = Amatar
Reconstructed Proto-Indo European is Matar hence formed through a vowel drop which is already known to occur: Amatar > Matar.
In some Native American languages like Cherokee, we see the Sumerian word for mother "ama" used for water. This may hint at their keeping their matriarchal language values from Paleolithic times. Commanche word for water is paa, related to Sumerian father.
DaughterThe kinship term closest to the sound "uğatar" (water) is "daughter". With the addition of a "d", the ancient word for water, "uğatar" becomes "duğatar". Moreover, with a change of vowel order it becomes "dağutar" hence "daughter". What is the logic behind adding a "d" sound?
Ug+u=Ugu, "Ugu" means "giving birth" in Sumerian. "Uga" as seen above, the basis of the word for "water", means "milk" in Sumerian and it is most closely related to "Ugu", birth.
In modern Turkish, "Doğ" means "to be born", "Doğu" means "East", where the sun is born. "Doğ+um"="Doğum" means "birth".
As seen also with the word daughter, a "d" sound is added to Sumerian "uğu" / "uğa" to form modern Turkish "Doğ". Where does that "d" sound come from?
The answer lies in Sun Language Theory: Another Sumerian word for "giving birth", "bear child" is "utud". It is formed through addition of "ut" and "ud": ut+ud = utud.
Both "ut" and "ud" mean "sun" in Sumerian Turkish. It would literally mean sun+sun, a word duplication meaning: many sun, most sun.
ma The Sumerian word "dumu" (du+mu) which means "child, son, daughter", has the same "du" root. And the "mu" part is closely related to "ama" mother.
The Sumerian word for "sun" is the basis of "d" in Duğu": Ud+uğu= Uduğu and with the initial vowel drop as seen in "amatar", "apatar" etc., we obtain "Doğu" the modern Turkish word for East and birth "doğum" and the English word "Daughter" (=Doğ+Tar)
English word "Born", French "Ne"At first sight they seem to be completely different because they sound very different. However, if use mythology-language relationship we see that they actually share a root!
English word "born" or the German equivalent "Beran" for birth also derive from Turkish, through another Turkish word root. Sun Language Theory also explains that.
The reconstructed PIE word "ber" for "born", means "give" in Turkish. Hence you can easily reconstruct born and baren, through ber+An = give+Sky hence Sky-given. Romance language words for "born", for example "Nee" in French, derive from the Sumerian Turkish sky word, An:
An > Ne
Primeval WaterSumerians believed that the world was based on primeval water, called "abzu", basis for the English word "abyss". In Sumerian words "Uga" (Ug+a) which means milk, "Uğa" which forms the basis of the word Hittite "uğatar" / "watar", Sumerian "a" which is used for water, sperm and progeny, we see the evidence of ancient beliefs in language.
The word Ugatar (Water) shows common origin for Romance and Germanic languagesIf you look at the etymology of the words for English word "water" and French word "eau" one sees different Proto-Indo-European reconstructions. Etymologyonline mentions two roots for the word water: *ap- and *wed-.
Wiktionary has the following etymology word the French word for water
From Middle French eau, eaue, from Old French ewe, euwe, egua (“water”), from Latin aqua (“water”), from Proto-Italic *ak?a, from Proto-Indo-European *h²ek?eh² (“water, flowing water”). Cognate with Old English ea (“flowing water, stream, river”). *ahwo (“waters, river”).
Divergent Germanic and Romance language reconstructions can be easily connected with the use of "uğa" and "uğatar".
Let us also note that "Watar" is not the only rendering of the Hittite word for "water": "wa-a-tar", "wadar", "wadarra" are also used.
"wa-a" would be uğaa!
There is only one consonant in the world that would satisfy all the above three equations: That would be Turkish guttural sound "ğ"!
Moreover Ancient Greek word for water οὕδωρ (hoúdōr) shows the "h" sound. This would reaffirm the existence of ğ, as ğ is known to become h, as in Uğur > Huur (Huurri / Hurrian) and known to satisfy all of the above.
Hence, we can easily and correctly reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European word "ağua". And the only difference this word has with the Hittite "uğa" (or "uğaa) written as "wa" in Hittite and English is the order of the vowels: "ağu" instead of "uğa".
The word Nektar has a similar derivation as WaterNectar is the drink of Greek and Roman gods largely associated with immortality. The established etymology of this word supports the correct etymology for the word "water", as I have shown above.
See the main article Nektar
Latin Rege, French Roi, Minoan Linear A ro-ja, Sumerian Uruk, Turkish Urug, Hungarian UgorThe royal title read as "ro-ja" in Linear Minoan A, fits both in sound and meaning Sumerian Turkish "ur+uğa" (Man+Water/Lineage)!
Uruğa > Ruğa= Ro-Ja which is the Minoan Linear A royal title. And this word in Turkish sounds exactly like French "Roi".
Latin "Rege" derives from uruğa > ruğa > rege as well ! This also explains the loss of "g" from Latin "Rege" to French "Roi", which can happen only with a "ğ", just like in ağua > Latin "aqua" and French "eau" as seen above.
What does Turkish word "Urug" mean?
The ancient Turkish word URUG known from Orhun scripts in East Asia, means the base/grouping of the collection of families and is part of the hierarchical Turkish society organization: Urug = Ur+Ug, base/collection of families plus people/lineage Ug. Also note Ur(um) and Uruk/Urug were very important Sumerian cities. See: Manifestation of Mythology, Religion, State and Empire Founding in Languages From Sumerian and modern Turkish Ug/Ag/Aug/Og, to Etruscan Augur, Latin Augeo, and the First Roman Emperor Augustus
The word "Uruğ" is formed by the same syllables as in "Uğur", "Ur" and "Uğ", the basis for Hungarian Ugor and Ugric languages as well. It is formed through sound order change, called a metathesis. Both of these words are still used in Turkish.
The origins of the inflection formed by "um" or "m", as in Latin "regem", is found in Southeastern Turkey Turukku(m) in around 2300-1800 BC and probably earlier, the ubiquitous ending in people/city names in the region the Etruscans and the Minoans migrated from. See more on the "um" suffix in Etymology of "Rome" (Roma, Italy).
The etymology of the word "Roma" follows the exact same path as Latin "Rege": Urum+a > Ruma and Uruğ+a > Ruğa > Rege.
The formation of the English word King follows another path but is based on same basic mythology and language, Turkish.
From Religious use to Mundane Kinship termsAs can be seen in Dyeus Pitar, Zeus Pitar, the word father was used as an attribute of god, hence the word has ancient religious roots. In time, it became the kinship term father.
English King, Turkish Kagan, Kin and KanEnglish word "kin" derives from Turkish word "kan" meaning blood. In Turkish, "kin" means hate, conceptually related to "kan".
Kagan / Khan / Han the word for highest ruler is also related. English / German words "King" and "Konig" probably derive from these stems: Kan+Ug (blood plus people/lineage).
More over "kan" is formed through Uğ+An=Kinship+Sky as the Sumerian word AN means sky. Uğan > Gan > Kan
"Gan" also means bear child in Sumerian, perfectly in line with "Ugan" above.
With the initial vowel drop, Ugan becomes Gan and later Kan. There is even more, Gan means mountain and is used in the Turkish word Kurgan the name of the grave in which Indo-Europeans were also buried in addition to Turks.
The other potential derivation for the English word King is Kun+ağ > Kunag > Konig / King. This uses the word for day Kun, and part of Kunesh, Sun in Turkish.
Origins of the English word Red, its Indo-European counterparts and Sumerian word for Copper reveals deep Sumerian connection and hints at the Urheimat of Indo-European languages. The proto Indo_European word for red, -reudh can only be explained through Sumerian urud+uğ = copper + kin means kind of copper, kin of copper, per Sun Language Theory. Hence the -h that is added at the end is actually Turkish ğ and not h.
"Of all languages derived from Turkish, English may well be the closest to Turkish." From Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Languages and Civilizations.
Migrations to British Isles and EuropeAbout 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)!
Irish people descendants of Middle East Farmers Celtic DNA shows
Latest genetics information on migration waves of the last 10,000 years, from Turkey (Anatolia) to Greece, Italy, Spain, Central Europe and Ireland can be found in my other articles and books.
The use of "Tar" in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit LanguagesThe use of "Tar" in Germanic languages has a counterpart in both Latin and Sanskrit:
Latin "Nostra" derives from Greek "Nos": "Nos+Tar" becomes "Nostar" and then "Nostra", meaning "we". Latin "Voster" as "vos+tar" becoming "voster", meaning "your", "you".
Sanskrit god "Indar", "In+dar/tar" (written in cuneiform as In-da-ra) is In+Dara > Indra with a metathesis, sound order change. Indra is the equivalent of Hittite Tarhunz and Greek Zeus!
"Dar" derives from "Tar" as T is known to become D, as in Sumerian UT became UD both meaning "sun".
The above shows a unified and correct Proto-Indo-European construction as opposed to those currently established seen above, 3 different roots for one basic word as water! In fact, mythologies are so connected that it would have been inconceivable to have 3 different words for water. They all go back to Sumerian Turkish Uğ plus a. In my books and articles, I had already shown that many reconstructed proto-Indo-European words are Turkish.
Connection between the words Water and WineAnother connection that can be seen through language-mythology (Sun Language) relationship is water-wine. The oldest ancient wine remains are from Georgia (South Caucasus) in 6000 BC and Iran 5000 BC.
The word for wine is constructed with the same root as water, uğa / wa plus "na" instead of "tar": wa+na=wana
The clearest example of this relationship can be found in Mycenaean Greek word for wine "wo-no".
Moreover, Greek word for wine, οἶνος (oînos), and Ancient Greek woînos, show how this word is based on uğan+os / uğanos, since ğ disappears as it does in other languages and, even in Turkish. Hence uğanos / woinos > uanos > oinos.
The ending -na is based on An, Sumerian Sky god. It is a metathesis, change of order of characters (sylabbles): an > na.
This also adds additional evidence for the route of the migration of the Siberian people found within Mycenaean Greeks: from Turkey instead of the Balkans. This question was left unanswered in the genetic study published in 2017. See genetics and more at Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece: Minoan, Mycenaean and Classical Greece.
"Na" is an Etruscan ending as in Tarchna, Bologna in Italy and Adana, Smyrna in Turkey. Etruscan / Pelasgian roots already observed in Greek can be traced back to Southeastern Turkey and Iran. Mycenaeans migrated from the same region: Etruscan civilization founded by migrants from Turkey. See how the words for wine in different languages, including Afroasiatic and Caucasian, was also used by Ivanov and Gamkrelidze for suggesting the Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans.
Laryngeal Theory must be correctedAs seen above, ğ is the consonant that must be used in Proto-Indo-European reconstructions and hence the theory must be corrected.
Most probable Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans: Eastern Turkey- Northwestern IranLinguistic data very strongly points at Southeastern Turkey and Northwestern Iran as the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans. It slowly expanded towards other parts of Turkey and Iran, followed by a rapid migration towards Europe and South Asia.
Proven: Indo-European Languages derive from TurkishI have shown the following:
1- The words, including suffix and prefix, used to construct the words water, father, mother derive from Sumerian Turkish.
2- Moreover the words are formed throgh addition (agglutination) a feature of the Turkish language.
3- TAR is a very important suffix used by Turks from the Altai, Siberia to Italy and beyond such as TARtessian in Spain. It is used in kinship terms: PIE patar, matar, etc.
4- Water-Father word relationship is established via both ancient and modern languages and across language groups! And reconfirmed via mythological beliefs.
5- Many PIE words lead to existing ancient Turkish words
6- In time, religious meaning became mundane kinship term.
7- Uğ (voiced g, a special Turkish sound) instead of h breve in Hittite and instead of h in many other instances of ancient Indo-European words. Must be analyzed on a case by case basis. Similarly, Hurrian is Uğur.
Sun Language TheoryAfter Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)